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157 Cards in this Set

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Care Instructions
a series of directions describing procedures for refurbishing/renewing a product without adverse affects
Care Labels
labels that give directions for cleaning; symbols may be used to alleviate the need for multiple languages
Rating
the process of determining or assigning a grade to a material by comparing it to a standard reference scale
Grade
the symbol, number or letter used for any step in a multistep standard reference scale for a quality characteristic
Reference Scale
a series of photographs, replicas, colored chips or paired gray chips that represent a range of visual changes likely to occur during testing
Rater
an individual who understands the process and procedure and grade distinctions; ability to recognize minor differences
Gray Scale for Color Change
visual test used to evaluate color changes in color textiles; consists of paired chips varying from light to dark gray
Color Change
is an alternation in color of any kind, lightness, hue or chroma or any combination
Gray Scales
are used because it isn't practical to develop scales for every possible color
Gray Scale for Staining
to evaluate staining of undyed materials during colorfastness testing
Colorant Staining
the unintended pickup of colorant by a substrate due to 1) exposure to a colored or contaminated liquid medium or 2) direct contact with dyed or pigmented material fromwhich colorant transfers by direct sublimination or mechanical action
Multifiber Test Fabric
tests fabric in which the filling yarns are made of different fiber content;dye tends to only bond with certain fibers and therefore some bands of fabric will staindarker/lighter and others possibly not at all; specimens should be compared so fiber stripesare in the same order
AATCC Chromatic Transference Scale
uses 30 color chips from five hue families (red, yellow,green, blue and purple) in rows/columns from lightest to darkest
Specimen Selection
is not as particular as with durability testing; issues usually relate to theprocess not the location
Fast
color change occurs slowly and bonds well; do not bleed during use/care
Fugitive
may degrade and change color quickly due to things like sunlight, perspiration,chemicals in cosmetics/deoderants; weak bonds and migration are issues
Migration
is non-uniform movement & distribution of colorants, finishes or other chemicals fromone material to another; migration helps dye travel to different parts of the fabric but alsocauses bleeding issues
Bleeding
the loss of color from textile materials in wet processing into the solution and maybond with other materials
Colorfastness
color loss and color transfer
Color Loss
when washing removes excess color that was not rinsed off after dyeing
Color Transfer
when dye rinses off one material and bonds with or stains another
Dimensional Change
refers to any alteration or modification in the dimensions of a material, component,or product during finishing, manufacturing or care
2 Types of Dimensional Change
shrinkage and growth
Most common type of dimensional change
shrinkage
Growth
increase in dimensional change
Shrinkage
decrease in dimensional change
Types of Shrinkage
relaxation, residual, felting, heat, progressive, and consolidation
Relaxation Shrinkage
occurs in first care cycle due to tension in yarn spinning during production that is notpresent after the garment is created and washed
Residual Shrinkage
relaxation shrinkage that occurs after the first care cycle
Felting Shrinkage
unique to wool/wool blends and is permanent; wool scaling interlocks due to heat and wateragitation
Heat Shrinkage
occurs with high temps; affects synthetics and manufactured goods improperly heat set
Progressive Shrinkage
occurs a little each time it is laundered; hard to assess. Cotton & rayon
Consolidation Shrinkage
occurs when a fabric is gently agitated in water
Testing Methods for Appearance Alteration During Cleaning
AATCC 124 Appearance of Fabrics after Repeated Home Laundering



AATCC 179 Skewness Change in Fabric and Garment Twist

AATCC 124 Appearance of Fabrics after Repeated Home Laundering
evaluates the smoothness offabric after at least 1 care cycle
AATCC 179 Skewness Change in Fabric and Garment Twist
specimens are marked and measured todetermine if skew occurs from laundering
Testing Method for the Durability of Finishes
ASTM D 2051 Durability of Finish of Zippers to Laundering
Dry Cleaning
a process that uses organic solvents rather than water as the basis of the cleaning solution;water and detergent may be added to help remove soiling

• Good at removing oily and fatty soils


• Reduces wrinkling and creasing that occurs in normal laundering

Multiprocess Wet Cleaning
an alternative to dry cleaning, which uses controlled applications of heat, steam,natural soaps and pressing techniques. An environmentally safe alternative
Colorfastness in Dry Cleaning
not the same as home laundering; colorants respond differently
Spot Cleaning in Dry Cleaning
may be tested for color migration
Dimensional Changes in Dry Cleaning
less pronounced in dry cleaning than laundering; may be progressive
Durability Issues in Dry Cleaning
finishes may not be durable; buttons are often damaged
Assess Soil Redeposition
the soiling of a relatively clean fabric during laundering by soil removedfrom another (redeposited)
Stain
a local deposit of soil or discoloration that exhibits some degree of resistance to removal bylaundering/dry cleaning
Testing Methods for Stains
• AATCC 130 Soil Release: Oily Stain Release Method; remaining stain is evaluated by AATCC stain release scale

• AATCC 193 Aqueous Liquid Repellency: Water/Alcohol Solution Resistance Test can be used to test stainresistancy


• AATCC 118 Oil Repellency: Hydrocarbon Resistance Test; detects fluorochemicals & finishes making the surfaceharder to wet (similar to dropping water on fabric but done with oils)

Bleaching
done during finishing of fabric to achieve level/uniform dyes & prints; produces abright, clear white
Chlorinated compounds, peroxides and sodium compounds
these remove stains but may alsodamage the material or fibers
AATCC 188 Colorfastness to Sodium Hypochlorite Bleach in Home Laundering (common chlorinebleach)
launders items 5x in homestyle washer with predetermined settings for bleach, temp,detergent and agitation
AATCC 172 Colorfastness to Non-Chlorine Bleach in Home Laundering
evaluates interaction ofbleaching chemicals, detergent solutions and abrasion during laundering
AATCC 190 Colorfastness to Home Laundering with Activated Oxygen Bleach Detergent
simulates 10+ home launderings, tensile strength may be affected by bleach/bleaching agents as it can damage fibers
Whiteness
consumer perceptions are based on bright almost bluish white; may contain a smallamount of yellow or green though not as desirable

• White fabrics may discolor with time and use


• White fabrics may yellow and appear dingy

Wrinkle Recovery
the ability of a fabric to recover from folding deformations
Testing Method for Wrinkle Recovery
AATCC 128 Wrinkle Recovery of Fabrics; Appearance Method tests for recovery of wrinkles after a24hr period of hanging after specimen was twisted and compressed in the AATCC wrinkle tester
Why does clothing storage matter?
resistance to insects, resistance to fungus and bacterial, resistance to aging, and resistance to dye transfer
Resistance of Insects
(particularly wool/animal hair and soiled textiles) the capability toimpede damage by insects by treating materials with chemicals; comparison of treated anduntreated specimens
2 types of resistance to fungus and bacterial
mildew resistance and rot resistance


Mildew Resistance
the resistance to developing fungal growths/musty odors when exposed to favorable growing conditions
Rot resistance
the material’s resistance to deteriorating from fungal growth
Antibacterial Finishes
include chemicals that kill bacteria or interfere with the multiplication, growthor activity of bacteria
Resistance to Aging
an issue with textiles treated with sulphuric dyes (usually cellulosicfibers); creates brittle fabric and tears easily. Specimens are steam aged for strength loss
Resistance to Dye Transfer
the movement of chemical, dye or pigment between fibers withina substrate or between substrates; temperature and humidity intensifies the problem & createsstaining
Why affects colorfastness?
heat, acid and alkalis, frosting, crocking, perspiration, and water
Heat & Colorfastness
can cause staining/color change; hotpressing for shaping and smoothing using dry or wetheat (i.e. creating pleats) color change is evaluated for heat effects
Acid & Alkalis & Colorfastness
can create issues with colorants (i.e. foods, cosmetics, soaps, etc…); specimens areexposed to various elements and evaluated for color change
Frosting & Colorfastness
or a white cast appears when dye does not penetrate the fiber well and abrasion occurs;colorfastness due to abrasion is evaluated
Crocking & Colorfastness
is the transference of color from one material to another; wet materials increase thetendency of crocking
Perspiration & Colorfastness
is a saline, acidic fluid and can create problems with colorfastness; simulated solutiontests fabric by pressing them together and evaluating for colorfastness
Water & Colorfastness
may be exposed to a material and evaluated for color change; many dyes dissolve inwater so bleeding may occur; water spotting is a potential issue
Cold Water Bleed & Colorfastness
places damp/wet fabrics contact with others for 18-24 hours and evaluated for colorchange
Environmental Conditions & Colorfastness
things like atmospheric contaminants (pollutants, fumes,gases) that can affect colorfastness of garments/materials particularly fading
Light & Colorfastness
has the potential to damage colorants and materials; tests vary based on lightsource and intensity. Combining light with water and humidity also affects results. Fading isevaluated.

- Lightfastness


- Photochromism

Lightfastness
the property of material, expressed numerically, describing a rank in colorchange from exposure to a designated light source
Photochromism
a qualitative designation for reversible change in color that terminates afterlight exposure ends
Weathering & Colorfastness
affects strength and durability (along with light) creating fabrics that areweaker, more brittle and sensitive to abrasion after exposure to light• Weather resistance
Weather Resistance
the ability of a material to resist degradation of its properties whenexposed to real or simulated climatic conditions
Specifications Identify:
• The test method to be used

• The measure of performance desired


• And may be written as minimums or maximums to specify acceptable levels of performance

Why is color important?
• Consumer acceptance and demand

• It influences purchase decisions

Why does color selection occur early in the production process?
1. Because of fashion

2. Because it is time consuming

Why is color consistency important? What does it affect?
• Texture

• Fabric


• Materials within the garment

Color
the sensation resulting from stimulation of the retina by wavelengthsof light
Wave
a form of energy
Wavelength
the distance from one crest to the next
Frequency
the number of crests that pass a point in 1 second
Amplitude
the height of the wave crest
Visible Light
the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that allows us toview light
White Light
all wavelengths are visible in equal proportions
Infrared Region
these wavelengths are longer than visible light
Ultraviolet Region
these wavelengths are shorter than visible light
Light Absorbtion, Transmission, Refraction and Reflection
light energy is absorbed,transmitted or refracted; absorption means it is taken in by another object,transmission means energy passes through the object with no change andrefraction means light crosses the materials and bends, reflection means thedirection of the light movement is changed
Scattering
when light is reflected at an angle and the reflection goes manydirections
Selective Spectral Absorbers
Most objects are selective spectral absorbers – absorb only some wavelengths oflight
Nonspectral Colors
do not occur in any natural spectra by 1 wavelength oflight(i.e. brown or purple)
Spectral Colors
colors found in the spectrum and created by 1 wavelength of light
Fluorescence
influences our perception of color because wavelengths arelonger (i.e. our idea of white is a fluorescent white that is bright bluish)
Trichromatic/Tristimulus Color Perception
means that our eyes have differentchannels for conveying color information
Color Theory
The visual mixing of color or the way our brains and eyesinteract to perceive color
Are colors that we see affected by light sources?
yes
What are the issues with colors/color matching?
metamerism & the bezold effect
Metamerism
an issue with color matching due to light sources
The Bezold Effect
the merging of 2 or more color areas into one
How do we describe color?
saturation, hue, brightness, and hueless/achromatic colors
Saturation
describes the purity of the color (i.e. 100% red); a pure color is fullysaturated and not mixed with other colors
Hue
describes the dominant color from a mixture (blue) and gives it its name
Brightness
the total intensity of the lightwave or the visual sensation
Hueless/Achromatic Colors
do not have hue characteristics and exist on acontinuum varying by brightness only
Additive Color Mixing
Adding wavelengths of light to create colors;primary colors in additive color mixing are red, green and blue

• Used on TV/movie screens and computers

Subtractive Color Mixing
removes one or more wavelengths of light to createother colors; primary colors are yellow, magenta and cyan

• All 3 colors combined in equal parts = black


• The absence of these 3 = white


• Secondary


• Tertiary

Secondary Subtractive Color Mixing
mixing equal amounts of 2 of these colors
Tertiary Subtractive Color Mixing
mixing equal amounts of 2 of these colors• Tertiary = mixing 1 primary and 1 secondary OR unequal amounts of 2 primarny

• Used in applying color to things we perceive such as objects, clothing, metal andpublished material

Color Fidelity
the accuracy of a color created in one method to match acolor in the other method
Standardized Light Sources
are important to measure and evaluate color!

• They replicate sunlight as closely as possible or commonly used light sources (CIEis responsible)• No singular best source of light; product/category/industry specific

Color Measurement
determines the specific color but accounts fordifferences between individuals and is used in color matching
Color Matching
occurs when two objects have nearly identical color sensationsand can be reproduced as many times as necessary
CCM or Computer Color Matching
a numerical method to match colors byevaluating all possible color combinations to create the best match possible
Shade Sorting
Grouping materials by color, ensures matching
AATCC covers color...
measurement and evaluation to calculate differencesin color
Tolerances are used and given in ranges for...
any variability in color from thestandard
Standard Colors
are commonly used colors within a company and all parts ofthe production process must have the same information in order to matchthe color

• Providing samples of digital files of the color, physical samples and printedmaterials/brochures enables the best chance of color matching

Lab Dips
samples of dyed fibers or material, often provided to thedesigner for verification of the correct color and finally color approval
Shade Banks
are physical swatches of color from lightest to dark ofacceptable shades of the dyed material and a sample of the dyed fashionfabric, or a strike-off may be sent for evaluation before production
PCP or Production Color Profiling
software that can replicate a printeddesign creating a realistic picture of a finished product so it can beenvisioned
Why are standards and specs important?
product integrity
Product Integrity
the way materials and other aspects of theproduct work together to affect consumer satisfaction; internal and external
Internal Integrity
the consistency of the materials’ function andstructure
External Integrity
the consistency between product performance andconsumer expectations
Standards
help a company describe the quality level for products; ensuresconsistency
Specifications
include details for products; describe exact characteristicsand performance levels to be used for evaluation; tolerances and components
Tolerances
acceptable range of variation from specs
Components
product pieces that come together in production*each component must fall within acceptable standards andspecs to ensure they will function together when thegarment comes together
Specs and standards are spent on...
an understanding ofmaterials used in production
Evaluating materials creates...
a greater chance the product willmeet requirements
If the materials in a product fail...
the product will fail
Performance and characteristics of the materials affect the...
pattern, construction, fit and grading
Prototype or sample is created to determine how...
the productwill fit
How does design impact internal integrity of a product?
- Details, features and characteristics of finished products

- Considers the entire product from a holistic perspective; howproduct parts contribute to the aesthetics as a whole


- Design specs focus on fashion and aesthetics


- Information is usually passed along digitally from step to step; Allows for mass customization

How well a product does what it is designed to do is the function, specs may…
- May address performance requirements for a specific end use or general

- May address advertising claims or guarantees


- May address function relating to protective clothing (i.e. helmets/footwear)

Why does appearance matter?
- How an item looks from near perspective (i.e. conversation distance); Hangar appeal

- Emphasizes the way the finished product looks from outside a close position


- How details match (i.e. stripes matching up at side seams)


- Symmetry of a garment


- Workmanship


- Engineering specs incorporate standards for workmanship to reach specificlevels (i.e. uniform pleating)


- Address function of closures (i.e. zippers, buttons)


- Usually address exterior of garments but occasionally interior as well

Workmanship
how a products materials and construction affect appearance
Size
- refers to length, width, depth circumferenceand vertical dimensions of a product

- dimensions are based company standards forsizes

Size specs include specific...
dimensions,tolerances and instructions for measuring theproduct
Body scanning uses reflected light to...
determinecomplex 3D shapes of the human body thatcan be analyzed to determine standard sizes
Fit
how product dimensions relate to 3D forms, bodies or objects
Fit standards relate to...
body features and how a product hangs on abody or needs of ease for movement (ease based on type of product,materials used); product features such as darts, relation of pockets toproduct scale; product drape; side seams should be perpendicular to thefloor, level hems
Garment/Product balance is...
the point where the garment naturallyrides or drapes on a body (i.e. a shirt balances from the shoulder)

- Fit models are used to test


- Garment weight should be evenly balanced


- Fit standards describe the way a garment should hang/balance on variousfigure shapes

Construction
the way the product’s parts, components andmaterials are combined
Specs may focus on specific processes or construction requirements:
- May describe general requirements (i.e. 10-12 stitches per inch)

- May include details; specific stitch to be used, thread type, seam allowance,etc..


- May address details such as seam edges, trimming threads, stitchingshoulder seams or requiring deep hems on children’s wear

Finishing
- Involves any of the procedures used to achieve final/finishedappearance

- Pressing, trimming of threads, steaming, turning pockets right side out


- Could include any processing steps such as product dyeing


- Specs address procedures to be completed and any materials or ingredientsto be used in finishing

Zones must be defined to...
set the parts that are more crucialfor appearance than others
Most visible zones are...
of greater importance than less visiblezones and ranked with 1 being the highest priority. Zoneswith lower priority (underarm, inside of a garment) areranked lower
Companies create standards and identify...
defects in each area
Packaging
The manner in which products are transported, shipped and presented tocustomers
Standards describe general aspects of packaging (varies from company tocompany) including...
materials to be used for packaging, how the item shouldbe folded or supported
Packaging indicates...
the number of products per box/container and thelabeling to be attached to the packages
Do standards and specs can have a significant impact on cost?
Yes
When standards and specs are high for construction & appearance,...
material selection and construction techniques must ensure the products meet that level of expectation
Relationship of Specs and Standards to Product Cost & Quality
- Companies must have a good idea of the customer’s performance & priceexpectations

- Important to ensure that low/inconsistent quality merchandise is notshipped


- Costs involved with managing standards and specs are part of the cost ofdoing business and ensuring quality assurance