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85 Cards in this Set

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_____ are convinced that normal bodily symptoms are indicators of illness.


Dysthymiacs


Dyspareuniacs


Hypochondriacs


Agliophobiacs

Hypochondriacs

_____ is a form of cancer that involves progressive infection and enlargement of the lymph nodes.


The cryptogenic disease


The June Bug disease


The fibrocystic disease


The Hodgkin's disease

The Hodgkin's disease

Illness schemas are acquired through:






-financial strain, disruptions in personal relationships, and other stressors that lead people to believe they are ill.


-fewer illness-related memories and fewer symptoms.


-people's interpretations of their symptoms and their decisions to seek treatment.


-commonsense beliefs about symptoms and illnesses that result in organized illness representations.

commonsense beliefs about symptoms and illnesses that result in organized illness representations.

Coherent conceptions of illness are acquired from:




-the fear of fatality from an illness.


-Those who are unaware about a disorder.


-Those who have had experience with a similar disorder.


-Individuals who self-prescribe medication.

those who have had experience with a similar disorder.

The _____ model is important because it lends coherence to a person's comprehension of the illness experience.


-commonsense


-health belief


-illness


-transtheoretical

Commonsense

Psychological and physiological symptoms of premenstruation are highest:




-five to six days before menstruation


-seven to eight days before menstruation


-one to two days before menstruation.


-three to four days before menstruation.

one to two days before menstruation.

One component of illness schemas involves perceptions of the range of symptoms, treatments associated with a particular disease, and its implications for quality of life. This component refers to the _____ of the disease.




identity


consequence


cure


cause

consequence

The label for an illness is its _____.




consequence


cause


cure


identity

identity

Bruce has been feeling increasingly fatigued even if he exerts mildly. He discussed his condition with his neighbor, Sam, who also suffers from a similar problem. Sam told him that a mega dose of vitamin B complex is very helpful in eradicating the symptoms. Bruce tried Sam's remedy and found that his condition is gradually improving. This is an example of _____.






-traditional medicine


-self-care


-disease prototype


-lay referral network

lay referral network

Sam is suffering from flu which is believed to be viral. Although, it is a common illness and does not hold any long-term consequences, she has been advised to take complete bed rest. Which of the following models of illness best describes Sam's condition?




Terminal illness


Cyclic illness


Acute illness


Chronic illness

Acute illness

Young children are more likely to use health services often because:




-it is more affordable and well-organized.


-their bodily functions are not fully functional.


-underweight babies need to reach normal weight.


-they develop a number of infectious diseases.

-they develop a number of infectious diseases.

Women are known to have better homeostatic mechanisms than men because:




-men are more sensitive to bodily disruptions.


-women are oblivious to new smells.


-men experience temperature changes more rapidly.


-women report pain earlier.

-Women report pain earlier

Certain ethnic communities incorporate beliefs about the causes and cures of diseases that would be regarded as supernatural or superstitious by traditional medicine. This is characteristic of the _____.




-home remedial technique


-commonsense model of illness


-health belief model


-lay referral network



-lay referral network

The usage of the Internet for health care information may be beneficial because:




-it is used by physicians to update their own knowledge on health care.


-it constitutes a lay referral network of its own.


-it is the most accurate source of information.


-it is easier to get appropriate treatment information from the Internet than the physician.

-it constitutes a lay referral network of its own.

The Affordable Care Act attempts to:




-form medical unions to protest against poor medical care provided to the underprivileged.


-standardize hospital management and medical care practices throughout the U.S.


-provide medicines at subsidized rates.


-bridge the gap between medical services used by the rich and the poor.

-bridge the gap between medical services used by the rich and the poor.

Medicaid is the federally administered system of health insurance available to the _____.




-disabled


-ethnic minority


-elderly


-underprivileged

-underprivileged

Medicare?

-elderly

The health belief model best predicts the treatment seeking behavior of:




-people who have been serving in the armed forces.


-people lacking resources and health care services.


-people who belong to certain ethnic minorities.


-people with money and access to health services.

-people with money and access to health services.

_____ complaints usually develop due to anxiety and depression.




-Medical


-Nonmedical


-Lay


-Abrasive

Nonmedical

Physicians are more likely to dismiss legitimate medical problems as psychological disturbances among _____.




-adolescents


-women


-men


-children

-Women (duh)

A study in the Annals of Internal Medicine suggested that physicians begin all their patient interviews with:




-Direct questions.


-online screening.


-Drug administration


-physical examinations.

Direct Questions

The notion that illness may actually be reinforcing because it exempts the individual from daily responsibilities is termed as _____.




-schemas


-lay referrals


-secondary gains


-primary gains

Secondary gains

_____ is known as the time it takes an individual to decide that a symptom is serious.

Appraisal Delay

Lydia is experiencing severe stomach pains. Last week, she found blood in her urine. She feels fatigue, and is increasingly unable to carry on with her daily routine. She has been researching about her symptoms on the Internet, and most of her symptoms indicate that she may be at an early stage of developing a cancerous tumor. She concluded that she requires treatment but has not visited a doctor yet. Which of the following delay behaviors is Lydia displaying?




-Behavioral Delay


-Appraisal Delay


-Illness Delay


-Medical Delay

Behavioral Delay

Leyon is a construction worker. He has been noticing blood whenever he passes motion and is also experiencing pain. However, he is not sure of his diagnoses and has not decided if he requires treatment. Which of the following delay behaviors is Leyon displaying?




-Behavioral Delay


-Appraisal Delay


-Illness Delay


-Medical Delay

Illness Delay

The detection of symptoms, their interpretation, and the use of health services are heavily influenced by the _____ process.




-ossification


-social


-psychological


-physical

psychological

According to the _____ plan, patients select their own doctors and hospitals and pay on a fee-for-service basis.




-students' medical


-preferred-provider organization


-traditional indemnity


-point-of-service

-traditional indemnity

Health care providers frequently resort to baby talk because:




-they realize that patients are ill and are not in the right frame of mind to interact as adults.


-they often underestimate their patients' level of understanding about an illness.


-they assume that all their patients are completely unaware of medical terms.


-they are trained to use baby talk with children who come for treatment.

-they often underestimate their patients' level of understanding about an illness.

Patient depersonalization usually results in:




-progressive patient-provider communication.


-emotional protection for the provider.


-sexism in medical practice.


-low quality of technical care.

-emotional protection for the provider.

Physicians prefer to treat an acute illness compared to a chronic illness because:




-acute illnesses require less than two physician consultations.


-chronic illnesses can increase a physician's distress over having to give bad news.


-acute illnesses pose uncertainties and raise questions about diagnosis.


-chronic illnesses pose uncertainties and raise questions about prognosis.

-chronic illnesses pose uncertainties and raise questions about prognosis.

In which of the following cases does a patient feel ignored by a physician?




-When the physician is systematically diagnosing and treating the patient


-When the physician prescribes bed rest and over-the-counter medications


-When the physician is clear about the patient's medical history


-When an admitted patient is visited by the physician twice a day

-When the physician prescribes bed rest and over-the-counter medications

Qualities of the interaction between a practitioner and a patient can perpetuate:




-healthy communication.


-faulty communication.


-feelings of discomfort in the practitioner.


-neuroticism in the patient.

-faulty communication.

Dissatisfied patients are more likely to:




-seek treatment that satisfies their emotional needs.


-Use varied medical services in the future.


-comply with proper treatment recommendations.


-schedule frequent medical checkups.

-seek treatment that satisfies their emotional needs.

Which of the following is an effective way of improving adherence to a treatment?




-Developing a checklist only for the patients to follow


-Restricting pharmacists from providing counseling along with prescription medication


-Making adult literacy a national priority


-Writing prescriptions on paper

-Making adult literacy a national priority

When a physician's advice is perceived to be vocational, the adherence rate is around _____ percent.


-52


-66


-90


-76

76

_____ can result from personal theories about a disorder and its treatment.




-Secondary gains


-Negative affectivity


-Creative nonadherence


-Faulty communication

-Creative nonadherence

The _____ model makes it evident that, for practicing good health behaviors and adhering to treatment, one needs the right information, motivation to adhere, and skills to perform a behavior.




-biopsychosocial


-transtheoretical


-health-belief


-information-motivation-behavioral skills

-information-motivation-behavioral skills

The first line of authority in a private hospital which is based on technical skill and expertise is the _____.




-Paramedical line


-Medical line


-Administrative line


-Behavioral care line

Medical line

The three goals of a hospital's functioning:




-are valid only in government hospitals.


-have a hierarchical order of importance.


-can create conflicting demands.


-are mutually exclusive.

can create conflicting demands.

Which of the following is a factor that aggravates burnout?




-High perceptions of success


-Excessive feedback


-Too much time spent with clients


-High sense of autonomy

-Too much time spent with clients

Children who are hospitalized often get dependent when they are on bed rest and rely on staff. This is likely to lead to _____.




-sublimation


-projection


-repression


-regression

regression

_____ treats patients using diluted preparations that cause symptoms similar to those from which the patient suffers.




-Homeopathy


-Ayurveda


-Traditional Chinese medicine


-Dietary supplements

-Homeopathy

_____ is the most common dietary supplement used by the U.S. population.




-Folic acid


-Calcium


-Vitamin D


-Multivitamin

-Multivitamin

A _____ diet restricts vegetarian consumption primarily to grains, cereals, and vegetables, and it requires greater attention to nutritional content.




-macrobiotic


-vegan


-kangatarian


-flexitarian

-macrobiotic



Acupuncture not only cures an illness, but also has a(n) _____ effect.




cannabis


analgesic


psychosomatic


agonizing

Analgestic

Which of the following techniques is included in the practice of yoga?




-Brisk walking


-Aerobics


-Tai chiI


-Posture enhancing

-Posture enhancing

Acupuncture usually triggers the release of _____.






-oxytocin


-dopamine


-endorphins


-ghrelin

-endorphins

_____ meditation teaches people to strive for a state of mind marked by awareness, focus on the present moment, and acceptance and acknowledgement without becoming distracted or distressed.




-Heart rhythm


-Guided visualization


-Mindfulness


-Transcendental





-Mindfulness

_____ is a meditative procedure that is especially useful in controlling discomfort related to cancer.




-Guided imagery


-Chiropractic


-Progressive relaxation


-Hypnosis

-Guided imagery

_____ is an alternative medical practice that draws on the body's ability to heal itself.




-Allopathy


-Homeopathy


-Naturopathy


-Osteopathy

-Osteopathy

In traditional Chinese medicine, _____ is used to manipulate the flow of qi.




-chiropractic


-osteopathy


-massage


-guided imagery

-massage

Which of the following statements is true about physical pain and social pain?




-Psychological distress is a key component of physical pain but not social pain.


-There are no similarities in the way that social and physical pain are experienced.


-Social pain relies on the same pain-related neurocircuitry as physical pain.


-Physical pain and social pain are mutually exclusive

-Social pain relies on the same pain-related neurocircuitry as physical pain.

Athletes who continue to play, despite being injured, experience a reduction in pain sensitivity because of increased:




-sympathetic arousal.


-parasympathetic arousal.


-psychological distress.


-stimulation of nociceptors.

-sympathetic arousal.

_____ refers to pain that triggers chemical reactions from tissue damage.




-Phantom limb sensation


-Thermal damage


-Mechanical nociception


-Polymodal nociception

-Polymodal nociception

The scientific understanding of pain was originally developed by Melzack in the _____ theory of pain




-peripheral pattern


-three dimensions


-intensive


-gate-control

-gate-control

A-delta fibers _____.






-are small, myelinated fibers


-typically transmit dull, aching pain


-cannot respond to mechanical pain


-transmit pain signals at a slower rate than C-fibers

-are small, myelinated fibers

_______ -fibers are unmyelinated nerve fibers, involved in polymodal pain, which transmit dull, aching pain.




1. C


2. A-delta


3. B


4. A-gamma

C-fibers

Which of the following statements is true of A-delta fibers?




-Sensory aspects of pain are heavily determined by activity in the A-delta fibers.


-A-delta fibers are unmyelinated nerve fibers that are involved in polymodal pain.


-Dull, aching pain is typically transmitted to the cerebral cortex by A-delta fibers.


-A-delta fibers typically conduct pain signals at a slower rate than C-fibers.

-Sensory aspects of pain are heavily determined by activity in the A-delta fibers.

C fibers:




-are small, myelinated fibers that transmit sharp pain.


-strongly influence the affective and motivational elements of pain.


-respond to mechanical or thermal pain but not to polymodal pain.


-typically transmit pain signals more rapidly than A-delta fibers.

-strongly influence the affective and motivational elements of pain.

The periductal gray is a structure in the _____ that provides pain relief when stimulated.




-cerebellum


-occipital lobe


-meninges


-midbrain

-midbrain

Neurons in the periductal gray connect to the reticular formation in the medulla which makes connections with the neurons in the _____ of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.






-subarachnoid space


-substantia nigra


-septomarginal fasciculus


-substantia gelatinosa

-substantia gelatinosa

When acute anxiety reduces sensitivity to pain it is known as _____.




-stress-induced analgesia


-stimulation-produced analgesia


-primary hyperalgesia


-opioid-induced hyperalgesia

-stress-induced analgesia

Typically, endogenous opioid peptides:




-are pain control drugs manufactured from plants.


-require additional factors to trigger their arousal.


-exacerbate the transmission of pain signals.


-increase sensitivity to pain.

require additional factors to trigger their arousal

Typically, acute pain:




-does not decrease with treatment and the passage of time.


-persists for 6 months or longer and increases in severity over time.


-results from a specific injury that produces tissue damage.


-always requires individualized pain control techniques for its management.

results from a specific injury that produces tissue damage.

Unlike acute pain, chronic pain does not:






-decrease with treatment and the passage of time.


-carry an overlay of psychological distress.


-require individualized techniques for its management.


-increase in severity over time.

-decrease with treatment and the passage of time

Which of the following statements best describes recurrent acute pain?




-The pain is constant and varies in severity, typically persists for 6 months or longer, and is relatively unresponsive to treatment.


-The pain typically goes on for 6 months or less and disappears when the tissue damage is repaired.


-It involves constant pain that increases in severity over time, due to a malignant condition, and typically lasts longer than 6 months.


-It involves intermittent episodes of pain that are acute in character but chronic inasmuch as the condition repeats for more than 6 months.

-It involves intermittent episodes of pain that are acute in character but chronic inasmuch as the condition repeats for more than 6 months.

Temporomandibular disorder and trigeminal neuralgia are examples of _____ pain.






-acute


-recurrent acute


-chronic benign


-chronic progressive

-recurrent acute

Migraine headache is an example of _____ pain.




-acute


-chronic benign


-recurrent acute


-chronic progressive

-recurrent acute

_____ pain is due to an unidentifiable physical cause.




-Nociceptive


-Phantom


-Neurogenic


-Psychogenic

Psychogenic

Which of the following is a reason for chronic pain to get exacerbated?




-Inappropriate prior treatments


-Increased sympathetic arousal


-Appropriate prescription of medications


-Decreased stimulation of nociceptors

-Inappropriate prior treatments

How does compensation provide an incentive for being in pain?




-By increasing the ability of patients to continue with life activities uninterrupted


-By increasing the perceived severity of pain


-By reducing the amount of disability experienced


-By reducing the amount of distress that is reported

-By increasing the perceived severity of pain

Which of the following characteristics is most likely to be displayed by patients suffering from chronic pain?




-Increased communication with family members


-Preference for loud noises


-Reduced pain behavior


-Discomfort against bright lights

-Discomfort against bright lights

Which of the following best describes a pain-prone personality?




-Societal factors that force an individual to experience pain more intensely


-A constellation of personality traits that predispose a person to experience chronic pain


-An individual's congenital traits that make him or her more vulnerable to pain


-Individuals with personality traits that predispose them to deliberate self-injury

-A constellation of personality traits that predispose a person to experience chronic pain

_____ is a personality attribute that is associated with chronic pain.




-Openness to experience


-Agreeableness


-Increased self-esteem


-Introversion

Introversion

According to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, which of the following is commonly referred to as the neurotic triad?




-Social introversion, anxiety, and schizophrenia


-Depression, delusion, and paranoia


-Anxiety, stress, and hysteria


-Hypochondriasis, hysteria, and depression

-Hypochondriasis, hysteria, and depression

_____ means that a patient no longer feels anything in an area of the body that once hurt.




-Pain threshold


-Pain sensitivity


-Pain behavior


-Pain control

-Pain control

Which of the following is a disadvantage of using morphine as a painkiller?




-It can be addictive.


-It is ineffective in relieving chronic progressive pain.


-It is effective only when used in conjunction with other painkillers.


-It cannot be administered to women.

?

_____ is a pain control technique that completely eliminates the feeling of pain.




-Counterirritation


-Spinalblock


-Distraction


-Relaxation



-Spinalblock



Surgical techniques to control pain involve:






-inhibiting pain in one part of the body by stimulating or mildly irritating another area.


-using spinal blocking agents to decrease the transmission of pain impulses from the peripheral receptors to the spinal cord.


-providing biophysiological feedback to a patient about some bodily process of which the patient is usually unaware.


-creating lesions in pain fibers at various points in the body so that pain sensations can no longer be conducted.

-creating lesions in pain fibers at various points in the body so that pain sensations can no longer be conducted.

Which of the following is a traditionally used pain management method?






-Counterirritation


-Hypnosis


-Relaxation


-Biofeedback

-Counterirritation

_____ is a sensory technique of inhibiting pain where a set of small electrodes is placed near the point at which the nerve fibers from the painful area enter the spinal cord. When the patient experiences pain, he or she activates a radio signal, which delivers a mild electrical stimulus to that area of the spine.




-Spinal block


-Spinal cord stimulation


-Acupuncture


-Biofeedback

-Spinal cord stimulation

_____ is a psychological technique for the management of pain and can be thought of as an operant learning process.




-Counterirritation


-Distraction


-Biofeedback


-Spinal cord stimulation

-Biofeedback

_____ is defined as a disorder in which the small arteries in the extremities constrict, limiting blood flow and producing a cold, numb aching.



-Alzheimer's disease


-Raynaud's disease


-Parkinson's disease


-Hodgkin's disease

-Raynaud's disease

_____ involves a mindful distancing from the pain experience where patients are trained to control their emotional responses to pain.




-Acceptance and commitment therapy


-Counterirritation technique


-Relaxation technique


-Biofeedback training

-Acceptance and commitment therapy



Cognitive behavioral techniques are helpful in the treatment of pain because it helps to instill _____ in a patient.






-drug dependency


-neuroticism


-introversion


-self-efficacy

-self-efficacy