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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Sexual Orientation Disclosure*****: 3 parts

Passing, Revealing, Organizational Antecedents

Passing definition *****

The practice of withholding or failing to reveal personal identity that is invisible or unrecognized by others

Passing*****: 3 methods

- Fabrication: deliberately provide false info

- Concealment: withhold/prevent access to info

- Discretion: avoid questions about orientation

Revealing*****: 3 methods

- Signaling: subtle hints & clues

- Normalizing: revealing orientation to others & attempt to make it normal/commonplace

- Differentiating: reveal orientation to others & highlight how it makes themselves different

Organizational Antecedents*****: 2 parts

- Organizational diversity climate (supportive environments reduce (-) work outcomes)

- Industry & professional norms ("don't ask, don't tell" / federal laws only protecting federal employees)

Fear of homosexuality itself is a motivation for _______ _______

Sexual prejudice

Homosexuality is contrary to their personal belief systems relates to...

sexual prejudice

Unpleasant interactions with an individual who is LGBT relates to...

sexual prejudice

Group norms mandate hostility towards persons who are LGBT relates to...

sexual prejudice

Characteristics of people who are more likely to be sexually prejudice:

- older males with limited formal education

- midwest/southern & republicans

- possess fundamental religious beliefs

- demonstrate high levels of psychological authoritarianism

- view sexual orientation as free choice

- have few/no LGBT friends

- not be sexually permissive

- hold traditional gender role attitudes

(2) Differential work experiences:

- Access to jobs

- Pay

Differential work experiences: access to jobs

Parents & athletes do not want to play for an LGBT coach / Typically, discrimination comes in subtle forms

Differential work experiences: pay

Gay men earn less / lesbian women earn more

Work experiences and career progression 4 points:

- Regular occurrence of treatment discrimination

- Unable to disclose their sexual orientation

- Negative impact on work attitudes & behaviors

- Importance of safe havens (can help & limit)

We assume some sports "make you gay" relates to...


Being/playing areound others will "make you gay" relates to...


You can tell if an athlete is gay or are "butch" or "feminine" relates to...



the dread heterosexuals feel towards sexual minorities and the self-loathing individuals who were LGBT felt towards themselves

focuses on the individual and irrational fears; hence "phobia"


different from homophobia in that it focuses more on macro elements of prejudice

-refers to the cultural system of arrangements that privileges heterosexuality & casts a (-) light on LGBT's and their behaviors, relationships, & communities

What is socially constructed over time?


P 218: "__________ when referring to a (-) attitude toward LGBT individuals & their behaviors, or communities, & I use the term ________ to refer to the larger, societal system that privileges _______ & casts sexual minorities as second-class citizens"

Sexual prejudice



People who have more ______ ___ ____ _______ may be more willing to reveal their sexual orientation

willingness to take risks

______ _________ _______ refer to the extent to which people regulate or try to control how well they fit in the social expectations of their roles within certain environments

Self-monitoring tendencies

The degree to which one has other potentially _________ ________ influences passing/revealing

Stigmatizing characteristics

(also one's stage of adult development helps to influence this)

P. 196 "_____ is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden - beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them"


Religion provides people with a set of meanings that influences:

- culture ideology (how people "interpret" the world)

- actions and relationships

- ideas about body, movement, and sports

4 Functions of Religion:

- Individual level

- Interpersonal level

- Institutional level

- Social integration

Religion provides people with emotional support and an ultimate sense of meaning at the _______ ______

Individual level

Religion operates here by creating a form of social bonding through the shared values and beliefs among people of a particular faith at the _______ _______

Interpersonal level

Here, religion provides a form of social control by prescribing certain behaviors that are consistent with the values, norms, and beliefs of that faith and of society at the _______ _______

Institutional level

Religion provides a form of _______ _______, uniting people of a common faith

Social integration

The basic feeling of being connected with one's complete self, others, and the entire universe is....


The basic belief that there is a supreme being / higher power effects of all things / ultimate source of the meaning of life relates to...


Religion and spirituality are mutually exclusive & are correlated are examples of...

Opposing views of religion and spirituality

5 major religions:

Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism

Religion in the workplace can effect...

- strategic decisions

- ethical behavior

- leadership

- servant leadership

A jewish owner chose to rebuild his plant that burned down in the exact same spot, even though it would have been economically advantageous to move it, is an example of religion influencing __________

strategic decisions

Scheduling games at BYU, the structure of a church hockey league, & health promotions among African Americans using faith-base initiatives are examples of how religion influences _________

strategic decisions

Although this is not directly associated with religion, one's religious identity impacts behavior. This is an example of how religion influences _______

ethical behavior

What are 2 factors that influence one's religious identity in the workplace that deal with ethical behavior?

- organizational commitment

- presence of others who share their religious faith

Want to have the influence, lead by example, make an impression/leave a footprint shows how religion influences _______

legacy leadership

"You would be remembered for treating others how you always wanted to be treated" relates to...

legacy leadership

Moral obligation to the organization and to their followers shows how religion influences _______

servant leadership

One's religious beliefs can also influence _______ in the workplace. This is particularly true in sport where emphasis is on competition, superiority, and dominating others.


Religion can shape how people see themselves and others as a source of ______


("Jewish closet" book example)

Athletes use religion for one or more of the following reasons:

- Reduce anxiety

- Avoid trouble

- Give meaning to sport participation

- Gain perspective

- Increase team unity

- Achieve personal success

Athletes use religi8on as a way of coping with the _______-producing uncertainty that is a fact of life with many sports


Athletes may use religion as a way of ________ because persons who hold strong religious beliefs may behave differently than those who do not

keeping out of trouble

Athletes spend so much time practicing that they use attending mass to justify so much time spent focusing on themselves as a way to ______

give meaning to sport participation

If an athlete _____ that her participation is part of God's calling, then facing challenges in that sport becomes easier.

Perceives / gaining perspective

Religion is often used to _______. Team prayer can potentially help bring them together and get them focused on the task at hand

increase team unity

Many athletes pray that they perform to the best of their ability, and if success comes as a result, then so be it. Some use it as a way of showing their gratitude for their athletic abilities and opportunities. This shows how athletes use religion to ______-

achieve personal success

Civilized Oppression *****

Systematic and inappropriate control of people by those with more power / person who is overweight or obese is likely to be in the subordinate position

Excessive amount of body weight with BMI over 30 (20% above recommended weight)


BMI over 25


World Health Organization stats:

- 1 billion people world wide are considered overweight

- 300 million considered clinically obese

YouTube video on Fat Discrimination shows...

Overweight women losing out in the workplace

Stereotypes of overweight people in workplace:

- lazy

- not as intelligent

- unmotivated

- don't exercise

- we associate being more in shape and fit with success

Weight discrimination / the last socially acceptable form of prejudice:


Contributing factors to weight:

- Diet (less natural and more processed)

- Decrease in physical activity (jobs are more sedentary / less educational opportunity)

- Over reliance on public and private transportation

- Genetics (patterns of overweight is not the same for adoptees as biological children)

Effects of weight in the workplace: prevalence of anti-fat attitudes...

- fat = stupid, indolent, worthless, unkempt, disgusting, unattractive, etc.

- considered to a function of personal control ("they should diet and exercise more")

- negative attitude diminish when individuals know someone overweight/obese

4 impacts of weight on work outcomes:

- Workplace Fit

- Pay (earn on avg $7k less/yr & 10% higher rates of poverty)

- Suffer discrimination in the selection process

- Segregation

Demographic moderators of weight

gender (women more likely to report weight discrimination)

Race interaction (white thin women considered more attractive, friendly, successful / heavy AA women more trustworthy, friendly / type of job: external employees should fit the prototype)

When dealing with weight and participation, overweight individuals...

- exercise & participate in sport less

- suffer from anxiety

- lack self-confidence/self-efficacy

Female Athlete Traid (weight and participation):

- greater risk of eating disorders

- amenorrhea (menstrual disturbances)

- osteoporosis (weakening of the bones)

Marketing (weight): (who and how are we marketing)

- Ex: Planet Fitness ("judgment free zone")

- role of sport products (drinks, supplements, bars, quick fix solutions)

Link between _______ and perceived leadership

height (no US president had been below avg height / 58% of CEOs of Fortune 500 companies over 6' tall)

People who are taller receive ______ pay than shorter counterparts


Implicit bias in _______

the workplace when dealing with height

Attractiveness: "beauty is not simply in the eye of the beholder"

universal beauty

_____ people:

- rated more favorably

- receive better treatment

- perform better in social situations


3 effects of attractiveness (in the workplace):

- selection

- performance appraisals

- promotion

Women may be _______ if considered too attractive

devalued - "beauty is beastly"

Impact of attractiveness on sport

- effects of testosterone on athleticism & attractiveness among men

- evidence from soccer of attractive goal keepers vs. defensive players

- evidence from football on positive association between attractiveness and quarterback

tattoos and piercings. __% Americans have one (1/5 but 2/5 over 20) and __% of hiring managers less likely to promote someone with a visible tattoo, and __% for a piercing




glasses perceived as...

more intelligent, competent, industrious

some may perceive as weakness, but overall see as an advantage

Men with longer hair are rated ______


Facial hair has more ______ feelings, and seen as _____, _______, and _________

negative, untidy, unkempt, unprofessional

Moderators of weight:

- demographics

- types of jobs

- qualifications

Average height for men and women in the US:



People are considered to have a ______ when they have a mental/physical impairment that largely restricts on or more major life activity when there is a recorded history of such


_____: discriminating against people with disabilities


"disabled people" versus "_______"

"persons with disability"

A major life activity is an activity fundamental to human life such as:

caring for oneself, performing manual tasks, walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, and working

Person with disabilities are not only ___ employed but also paid _____

under; less

Supervisor relationships with disabilities:

- poor relationship function of leader-member exchange relationships

- low performance expectations

Low performance expectations of disabilities:

- don't have requisite skills to perform effectively

- increase time demands on their supervisors

- increase healthcare costs

- have poor emotional adjustment including overly bitter, nervous, and depressed

_____: represents an attribute that produces a social identity that is devalued or derogated by persons within a particular culture at a particular point in time


6 major dimensions of stigma, which can be rated low to high

1- disruptiveness

2- origin

3- aesthetic qualities

4- course, or extent to which the disability is transient/permanent

5- concealability

6- peril, or degree to which one's disability could cause others harm

1- disruptiveness, or the degree to which the disability influences ____ ______ or ______ among people

social interactions; communications

2- origin, or the degree to which one is seen as responsible for his/her _____


3- aesthetic qualities, or the extent to which the disability negatively influences one's _______


5- concealability, or the degree to which the disability can be ____ _____ by others

plainly observed

____: classification of stereotypes based on warmth and competence


_____: this form is thought to be implicit in nature, can take 2 forms: aesthetic and existential


______ anxiety: brought on by fears of persons whose appearance deviates from the "norm" in society

aesthetic anxiety

______ anxiety: refers to the fear brought on when one is reminded of one's own vulnerability by seeing the person with disability


Moderating variables of disabilities:

- type of disability

- demographics of the target

- demographics of the perceiver

- nature of the workplace (selection, compensation, training & development, performance evaluation)

_______: sport that has been designed for or is specifically practiced by athletes with disabilities

disability sport

Many of the advancements of disability sport can be traced to the efforts of neurosurgeon Sir ______ _______

Ludwig Guttman

Issues related to disability sport:

- attitudes toward athletes with disabilities

- barriers to inclusion

- accessibility

View of disability sport as second-class or illegitimate is what issue?

attitudes toward athletes with disabilities

what are the barriers to inclusion?

-organized sport programs devoted to disability sport

-informal sport experiences for disabled children

-access to training programs & qualified, highly trained coaches

-access to sport facilities

-financial resources for specialized equipment

what are the lack of accessibility listed?

- lack of equipment

- many facilities are not ADA complied

- limited information

- lack of coaches

What does ADA stand for?

Americans with Disabilities Act