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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List and explain the
3 particles of an atom

What is an atom?
(1) Proton - positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
(2) Neutron - Neutraly charged particles in nucleus of an atom
(3) Electron - Negatively charged particles moving outside around the nucleus.
(4) An atom is the smallest component of a substance that exhibits physical and chemical properties of that substance.
Define Atomic Weight
and Atomic Number
Atomic Weight is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

Atom number is the number of protons in the nucleus.
Define Ions, Isotopes
and Compounds
Ions - an atoms that either gains electrons, or loses electrons. if gains (-) cation, loses (+), anion.

Isotopes - Atoms with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. Same number of protons, but atomic weight will differ.

Compounds - A molecule that contains at least two different kinds of atoms. (NaCl)
List and explain the
three types of bonds between
Ionic Bond - occurs between ions of opposite charges. One loses electrons, another gains them. (Only between metal and non-metal). Positive ion called cation, negative ionis anion.

Covalent Bond - 2 atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.

Hydrogen Bond - when a H atom covalently bonded to an O or N atom in one molecule is attracted to an O or N from another mollecule. Shown as as line of dashes -----. Example is H20. O is (-),H (+). H has bond to O on another water molecule.
Compare Energonic and
Exergonic reactions.
Reactions in chemicals involve making or breaking bonds between atoms. Bonds require chemical energy when they are broken, release chemical energy when they are formed.

ENERGONIC REACTION - absorbs more energy than it releases.

EXERGONIC REACTION releases more energy than it absorbs.
Compare Anabolic and
Catabolic Reactions
Anabolic - are synthesis reactions where two or more atoms, ions or molecules combine to form new and larger molecutes (bonds are formed):
A + B ---> AB
Ex: glucose and fructose into sucrose.

Catabolic - Reverse of above, Decomposition reactions,where bonds are broken and large molecules are broken down into smaller molecutes.
AB ---> A + B
Ex: Sucrose into glucose and fructose.
Distinguish organic
and inorganic
Organic Compounds ALWAYS contains carbon and hydrogen

Inorganic - typically lack carbon. Ex: H2O . Universal solvent.
Compare and contrast
acids, bases and salts
Acid - substance dissociates into one or more H+. Ex:
HCl --> H+ , Cl-

Salt : into cations and anions, not H+ or OH- Ex:
NaCl --> Na+ , Cl-

Bases : into one or more OH- ex:
NaOH --> Na+ , OH-
List the four types
of organic macromolecules
Formed by monomers combing into polymers.

Amino Acids

List two types of Macromolecules:

Joined by dehydration synthesis.
(1) Carbohydrates: important for structure & energy. Consist of C,H,O with 2:1 of C to H. Ex:
Glucose & fructose -> Sucrose with H20 released. 2 monosacharides form a disacharide.
Monosacharides are simply sugars, 3 - 7 carbon atoms.
Deoxyribose, a pentose found in DNA. Glucose is a hexose.
Oligosaccharides 2 - 20 mono.
Polysaccharides: tens/hundreds.
CHITIN- composed of two sugars

(2) Lipids: Primary components of cell membres. Consist of C,H,O - no raio. Are non-polar and insoluble.
SIMPLE LIPIDS: fats of trigyclerides formed by dehydration. 1 glycerol backbone with 3 fatty acids. Unsaturated if double bond in carbons.
COMPLEX LIPIDS: Contain C,H,O and phosphhous, nitrogen or sulfur. Two fatty acids tail and glycerol, and head of P,N,S. Head is hydrophilic, tail(acids) hydrophobic. Cell membranes made of phospholids.
List other 2 types
of macromolecules

Nucleic Acids
(3) Protein: used for cell structures and function. Ex:Enzymes and transport proteins, Antibodies are proteins.
Proteins always made up of amino acids that have H2N (amino group) and Carboxyl group OH=C=O

Amino Acids: Exist in either 2 stereoisomers D, or L, most are L. (isomer=same atoms, 2 different compounds. Peptide bonds between amino acids formed by dehydration synthesis.
List and explain the 4
levels of protein structures
(1) Primary Structure: the unique sequence in which the amino acids link together to form a polypeptide chain.

(2) Secondary: the way the amino acid chains folds and coils in a regular helix of pleats Hydrogen bonds hold structure.

(3) Tertiary: 3D structure of the polypeptide chains. Disulfide, hydrogen, ionic bonds between amino acids.

(4) Quaternary: 2 or more polypeptdes operating as a single functional unit.

Proteins can unravels, lose shape by denaturation.
Discuss dehydration synthesis
and hydrolysis reactions pg 38.
Dehydration Synthesis: type of exchange reaction where monomers combined to form polymer (macromolecules).
Usually involves the elimination of a Hydrogen atom from one monomer and a hydroxl group from the other; the hydrogen atom and the hydroxol group combined to form water. ex:
R--(OH+OH)--R' --->
R--R' + H20

Hydrolysis reaction: reaction to reverse the action, water must be added.

Glucose + Fructose --> Sucrose + H2O. Adding water will break down the sucrose into glucose and fructose.