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33 Cards in this Set

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Steps of the scientific method

observe, question, hypothesis (alternate, null), experiment & materials, collect data, conclude

what is and why do we use the scientific method

it is a process to study the world around us, to evolve, advance, and grow

what is a hypothesis

possible answer to the question, it is a statement. testable or falsifiable

why are not all hypothesis conductive to controlled experiments

money, resources, ethical reasons

what is the difference between a model, theory, law

model-some evidence to support but under certain conditions


theory-tested over and over again but not universal


law- universally accepted



What was the big test in Diamond's statement

big test- polynesia as a whole, the small test was the maori vs the maoriari, their conflict showed societal differences due to different environmental conditions, different historical and societal environments. Maori Chatham- hunter gathers, no hierarchy. Maoriari New Zealand- fishers, came up with theory.


what did Darwin believe


all life descended from a common ancestor


whats uniformitarian geology

a theory that changes the earths surface have occurred gradually over long periods of time


process of geologic speciation

a new species can develop when a population becomes geographically isolated from its parental species

gradualism

an existing species could give rise to a new species by a sudden leap or saltation

vertical evolutionism

deals with adaptive changes in the time dimension

horizontal evolutionism

origin on incipient species and how species as populations move into new environments

horizontal thinking about speciation permitted the solution of 3 problems, which were they?

1.why and how species multiply


2. why there are discontinues of major groups of organisms, when concept of gradualism implies countless graduation between all groups


3. how higher taxa could evolve

theory of common descent

all organisms were part of a single linear scale of ever growing perfection, continuing divergence and multiplication of species

biogeography

change in the position of a man

what are darwins 5 theories

1. evolution as such: world is not constant but steadily changing


2. common descent: every group of organisms descended from a common ancestor, from a single origin of life on earth


3. multiplication of species: explains origin of enormous organic diversity


4. gradualism: evolutionary change through population


5. natural selection: evolutionary change comes from production of genetic variation in every generation

evidence of speciation

new lineages from old, interbreed


ligers; hybrid cannot breed

evidence of microevolution

change through time, stickleback,


vestigal structure; an anatomical feature that no longer seems to have a purpose in the current form of an organism of a given species


tail bone

evidence of macroevolution

new form from old, transitional forms.


ex: archaeopteryx has flight feathers like bird and dinosaur like skeleton with teeth and long tail

evidence of common ancestry

all life forms are related; human, mole, horse

three differences in stickleback

ocean; more plates, bigger eyes, larger fins

what does standard deviation tell you

The standard deviation provides some idea about the distribution of scores around the mean (average). The smaller the standard deviation, the more narrow the range between the lowest and highest scores or, more generally, that the scores cluster closely to the average score.

law of succession

the general pattern of correspondance between fossil and living forms from the same local

transitional forms

species showing mix of features, traits from ancestral populations and later in descendants


archaeopteryx and dinosaur

why are the spine of stickleback important

when a larger fish tries to eat a marine stickleback, the stickleback defends itself by extending the spines on its back and pelvis

2 components of special creation

1. all species are immutable (do not change since their origin), species were recently created, and variation among individuals is limited.

2. All species were created separately and are genealogically unrelated to each other.

difference between horizontal and lateral evolution

Horizontal gene transfer is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material (i.e. DNA) to another cell that is not its offspring. By contrast, vertical transfer occurs when an organism receives genetic material from its ancestor, e.g. its parent or a species from which it evolved.

ring species

Ring species is two species populations that are living in the same region but do not interbreed but is connected by a geographic ring of populations that interbreed.

what were the external factors that influenced the acceptance of Darwin's theories

social economic vs. ideologice

difference between population thinking and essentialism

population thinking: different bird from a general bird


essentialism: ideal bird is a bird



what influenced darwin toward gradualism

the differences between the mockingbird populations, the slight differences among many varieties and species of animals, barnacle researchers


what led to darwin's theory of common descent

galapagos mockingbird, every group of organisms descended form an ancestral species

difference between saltational and gradualism

gradualism: the belief of advancing toward a goal by slow stages


saltational: sudden change from one generation to the next