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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does evolution explains these fundemental observations?
Biological Diversity
Biological Change (diversity and form)
Relationships between organisms
What is biological diversity?
This is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or for the entire Earth.
Evolutionary relationships of all known organism can be inferred from _____ _______ __
Ribosomal DNA sequences
What is C.lupus?
What are the three egg laying mammals?
short-beaked echidna
long-beaked echidna
What is the age of the solar system, earth and universe?
Universe-11-12 billion
Earth-3.8 billion
Solar System-4.5 billion
What is adaptation?
This is the evolutionary process whereby a population becomes better suited to its habitat.
What is the classification of a mammal?
Mammals are defined as vertebrate chordates that have hair and suckle their young, have more than 1 type of tooth and a flap on the ear that may be called a pinna.
What is the evidence for macroevolution?
Fossil records
Biographic distribution
What is punctuated equilibrium?
Punctuated equilibrium is a theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that most sexually reproducing species will experience little evolutionary change for most of their geological history (in an extended state called stasis). When evolution occurs, it is localized in rare, rapid events of branching speciation (called cladogenesis).
What is cladogenesis?
Cladogenesis is simply the process by which species split into two distinct species, rather than one species gradually transforming into another.
What are the three fundmenatal observations of evolution?
Biological diversity (all biological diversity can be grouped into hierachical system of classification. There is no single, truly unique organism)

Biological Change
-Form and diversity change over time

-All organisms exhibit adaptations that enhance survival and reproduction
Why is evolution important?
Evolution provides scientific explanation for origin and diversification of life

Evolution has predictive value for crop and animal breeding, medical implications and conservation decisions
Evolution is an observable fact and explanatory theory for:
Descent with modification
Biological change over time
Evolution caused by natural selection
What are the three modes or alternative expalnations for evolution(adaptation, diversity and change)?
Transformism- There are species that have separate origins and they may change, but they don't diversify.

Creationism-There are separate creations of species and the immutability of species

Evolution-All species came from an origin and then diversify and will change over time.
What is a Geospiza fortis?
These are finches
What is closest living relative of birds?
What are the four ways to show the change over time happens with microevolution?
 Species and Population change in environment

• Finches
o Finches with deal with hard shelled seeds with the beaks
o Shows that in drought, when there are more hard shelled seeds, the beak depth varied with the favorable depth for the hard shelled seeds.
o They had deeper beaks

• Pesticide and antibiotic

 Species and population change in lab
• Lab experiments - artificial selection

• Field experiments on the snail Cepaea nemoralis
o In an open (high light) environment a yellow snail would be more fit
o In an wood (low light) environment a pink snail would be more fit
 To test transfer snails (both pink and yellow) to both habitats and see what survived more
What are the two ways to show the change over time happens with macroevolution?
Biographic distributions
-Example can see that a South American and African family of birds are closely related.
-Due to pangea splitting

Fossil records
What is vicariance?
The separation or division of a group of organisms by a geographic barrier, such as a mountain or a body of water, resulting in differentiation of the original group into new varieties or species.
Besides change over time what else gives evidence for evolution?
Descent with Modification and Natural Selection
Within descent with modification, show how this can give evidence for evolution?
Homology (Shard feature that is inherited from common ancestor)
---Universal genetic code
---Embryological stages change less over evolutionary time than later embryological stages

Vestigial structures
(Wale femur and snake legs)

Suboptimal” designs (features that do not seem perfected from an engineering perspective)
-The crossing of the air path with the food path

4. Artificial selection; human-induced, observable descent with modification
What is the definition of natural selection?
This is the differential survivorship and reproduction due to a heritable trait and this heritable trait is passed on more to the offspring. The offspring with this heritable trait have a better chance to survive, they have a greater fitness in their environment.

Natural selection is the process by which heritable traits that make it more likely for an organism to survive and successfully reproduce become more common in a population over successive generations. It is a key mechanism of evolution.
What is adaptation?
Traits that improve survivorship and reproduction are called adaptations.
What is the only evolutionary force to make adaptation?
Natural Selection
What is convergence?
This is independently evolved solution to a similar problem

similarity between species that is caused by a similar, but evolutionary
independent response to a common environmental problem; independently evolved solution to a similar problem; the last common ancestor of such species did not exhibit the trait that evolved independently in the descendent lineages
Please explain logistic growth
This is growth that is at first exponential, declines and then reaches a carry capacity of zero growth.
Why will growth rate begin to decrease?
Because of direct or indirect competition.
Limited resources
What are the four qualities for natural selection?
Variability in heritable traits
Variation in fitness
Define phenotype
A phenotype is any observable characteristic or trait of an organism: such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, or behavior. Phenotypes result from the expression of an organism's genes as well as the influence of environmental factors and possible interactions between the two.
Define genotype
The genotype is the genetic constitution of a cell, an organism, or an individual (i.e. the specific allele makeup of the individual) usually with reference to a specific character under consideration.[
Give a definition of biological evolution?
This is an inherited change in a group of variable organisms through time.
What is variance?
This the spread around the mean
What happens in discrete polymorphisms?
This is a category of variation where there are no intermediates, seen in flower color
What is the difference between discrete polymorphisms and continuous variation?
Continuous variation:
Influence by environment
Quantitative trait
Polygenic trait

Discrete polymorphisms
Monogenic trait
Environment plays no role
What is heritability?
Heritability is the proportion of phenotypic variation in a population that is attributable to genetic variation among individuals.
What is the equation for heritability?
Variance of phenotype= Variance due to gene + variance due to environment + variance due to (envi and gene) = Vp

Hertiability (H^2)=Vg/Vp
Why could heritability be so low?
Large variation due to environment
Little variation due to genes
Does heritabilty determine variation?
No, it drives variation but doesn't determine it
What is the definition of heredity?
The biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next
Disruptive selection often occurs during speciation events and thn the subsequent directional selection will add ______ between the two species?
What is divergent evolution?
Divergent evolution is the accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species, usually a result of diffusion of the same species adapting to different environments, leading to natural selection defining the success of specific mutations.