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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Removing a person from a respirator after he has been declared dead by whole brain death criteria and laws is a case of passive euthanasia
False
A person in a coma is not generally considered to be dead by most state laws
True
The primary determinant of whether a case should be labeled active or passive euthanasia is whether or not there is any action involved
False
Since blood transfusions are now common, they are always to be considered ordinary means of life support
False
If a person asks to be disconnected from certain life support equipment, and this is done, this is a case of what would be considered voluntary active euthanasia for one is actively doing something
False
Relatively common or standard measures of life support are always to be considered ordinary means of life support.
False
According to James Rachels, his argument supports the view that there is a definite and significant moral difference between active and passive euthanasia, considered in themselves
False
According to a consequentialist argument regarding legal punishment, if a form of punishment is not deterring anyone from crime, then it cannot be justified.
True
A retributivist argument for legal punishment is one according to which persons who break laws must be punished so that we can get personal satisfaction
False
A retributivist would uphold a just punishment for certain crimes even if the imposition of this punishment did not deter anyone from committing such crimes
True
Van den Haag holds that execution is an inappropriate means of punishing murder
False
A common objection to retributivism is that it strongly opposes the death penalty
False
A problem with the deterrence argument is that it could easily be transformed into a case of the ends justifying the means
True
A libertarian conception of economic justice relies on notions of a negative right, while a socialist conception stresses a positive right
True
According to John Rawls in his A Theory of Justice, it is always unjust for some people to be very wealthy and others to be poor
False
Nozick holds that taxation is an acceptable means of obtaining money in order to proved benefits for the needy
False
Libertarians are in favor of centralized government
False
Socialists believe that the government should own and control most social resources
True
At present the cloning of animals is somewhat inefficient and risky
True
Cloning to make a human being is called therapeutic cloning
False
The yuck factor argument to human cloning holds that we ought to trust our gut reactions to certain procedures as indicative of their moral nature
True
One alternative that has been suggested to overcome certain ethical concerns pertaining to the moral status of an early embryo is use of adult stem cells.
True
A clone can be thought of as one in a group of individuals who are genetically identical
True
For some, there is the worry that cloning people would amount to exploiting them
True
Among the indicators of economic development of a country are standard of living life expectancy, and literacy
True
According to Peter Singer, helping people in famine ridden countries and areas is a matter of charity not obligation or duty
False
One significant difference between matters of charity and matters of justice is that the former is more flexible or optional that the latter
True
One of the ways to evaluate ethically the policies of the IMF and World Bank is whether they have done more good than harm or the opposite
True
A basic problem for many developing countries is too many natural resources
False
For some Westerners, economic and social development are not separable form rights
False
Autonomy is closely linked to the practices of democracy
True
According to Jeremy Bentham, rights are the key to moral standing
False
Moral rights are rights which exist independently of the legal system
True
Anthropocentrists value nature for its own sake
False
Some ecofeminists believe that the source of our environmental problems lies in our being governed in our relation to nature by the male type of dominance over it
True
Deep ecologists and ecofeminists share common views about the proper way to regard nature and the sources of our environmental problems
False
Because huan interests in a livable environment often compete with other human economic interests, some find cost-benefit analyses useful for judging, weighing, and comparing benefits and costs
True
Cost benefit analyses involve both assessment and evaluations
True
What does the term "euthanasia" literally mean?
Good death
Which of the following conditions must be met for the doctrine of double effect to be morally permissible?
The good results must outweigh the bad ones
Identify as a retributivist, consequentialist prevention, or consequentialist deterrence justification for punishment: Some crimes are so horrible that those committing them are appropriately punished with life imprisonment without parole.
Retributivist
Identify as a retributivist, consequentialist prevention, or consequentialist deterrence justification for punishment: There should be no legal punishment for crimes that persons are forced to commit for they are not really responsible for these crimes
Retrivutivist
Identify as a retributivist, consequentialist prevention, or consequentialist deterrence justification for punishment: At least while they are in prison they cannot do any harm to those outside the prison
Consequentialist prevention
What is true of Ernst Van Den Haag's argument regarding capital punishment?
That guilt is personal and the ideal of equal justice demands that justice be equally distributed-not that it be replace by equality
According to a deterrence theory, the death penalty would be justified if it:
prevented many future murders
For the retributivist punishment is
Internally related to the wrongful conduct
How does modern liberalism differ from the classical liberalism of J.S. Mill?
It stresses the primacy of justice, as well as liberty rights
Libertarians would oppose
All of these choices
Socialists would favor
None of these choices
Identify as either an End State or Process view of Justice: If some in a society have greater wealth than others this is just only if the difference is due to the fact that those with more have worked harder for it
End state view of justice
Identify as either an End State or Process view of Justice: Just societies must satisfy the basic needs of all their members
End state view of justice
When the Human Genome began what was its goal?
To "map" or code the entire human genome as a cooperative effort of the United States, Great Britain, and Japan
Why does Kass say, "What would kinship be without clear natural grounding? And what would identity be without kinship?"
Kass seeks to emphasize natural procreation and the fact that asexual reproduction is a radical departure from what is nature
According to Macintosh, biology does not determine what is "natural", it is determined by
Cultural and moral values
What does Leon Kass think about the general repugnance at the thought of cloning of human?
Kass says repugnance is a warning not to transgress what is unspeakably profound
A common ethical objection to human reproductive cloning is that
All of these choices
Genetic engineering holds out the beneficial possibility of:
Gene therapy
A possible area of concern for genetic screening is
The creation of conflicts of interest
What ethical theory is closest to Peter Singer's when it comes to famine relief?
Utilitarian
Who says "the distintegration of the national egg is necessary to integrate the global omelet"?
Herman E. Daly
Which of the following would dictate doing something to lesson the gap between rich and poor countries?
Self-interest
Which of the following are common meanings of globalization?
All of these choices
Which of the following is taken to be a contributing factor to extreme poverty?
All of these choices
Identify the following as either an Anthropocentric or a Nonanthropocentric perspective: A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community
Nonanthropocentric
Identify the following as either an Anthropocentric or a Nonanthropocentric perspective: I'm going to work for that anti-pollution measure because if it doesn't pass even my own local rivers will be damaged, and then my health might be endangered and my sports and aesthetic interest in the rivers threatened.
Anthropocentric
What is meant by intrinsic value?
Things have intrinsic value or worth when they have value or worth in themselves for some reason
A perspective that holds that humans alone have intrinsic worth or value is called:
Anthropocentric
What is an example of an environment problem?
Ozone depletion
Why is Aldo Leopold considered significant?
Because in his essay "The Land Ethic" he said we should think of the land as a fountain of energy
What environmental movement locates the source of environmental problems not in metaphysical or worldviews, but social practices?
Eco-feminism
A perspective is anthropocentric if it holds that:
Only human being have intrinsic
Something has instrumental value if it is valued solely for its:
Usefulness
Which type of duties do we have towards moral patients?
Direct
According to the deep ecologist, any intrusion into nature requires:
Justification
What did Jeremy Bentham think we need to know to assess the moral status of animals?
Whether or not the can suffer
What makes something a right (as opposed to a wrong)?
A right is a strong and legitimate claim that can be made by a claimant against someone
What distinguishes an interest from a right?
Having an interest in something is to have a consciousness of that thing and to want it.
Sentience requires the capacity to:
Feel pleasure and pain
Which of the following is generally thought to be the stronger duty?
Avoiding causing pain
What ethical theory is closest to Peter Singer's when it comes to animal rights?
Utilitarian