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59 Cards in this Set

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Psychology

The science that seeks to understand behaviour and mental processes and to apply that understanding in the service of human welfare.

Positive psychology

A field of research that focuses on people's positive experiences and characteristics.

Cognitive psychologists

Psychologists whose research focuses on analysis of the mental processes behind judgment, decision making, problem solving, imagining, and other aspects of human thought (cognition).

Biological psychologists

Psychologists who analyze the biological factors influencing behaviour and mental processes.

Personality psychologists

Psychologists who focus on people's unique characteristics.

Developmental psychologists

Psychologists who seek to understand, describe, and explore how behaviour and mental processes change over the course of a lifetime.

Quantitative psychologists

Psychologists who develop statistical methods for evaluating and analyzing data from psychological research.

Clinical, counselling, and community psychologists

Psychologists who seek to assess, understand, modify, and prevent behaviour disorders.

Educational psychologists

Psychologists who study methods by which instructors teach and students learn and who apply their results to improve such methods.

Consciousness

The awareness of external stimuli and our own mental activity.

Biological approach

The view that behaviour is the result of physical processes, especially those relating to the brain, and neurochemicals.

Evolutionary approach

A view that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive aspects of behaviour and mental processes.

Psychodynamic approach

A view developed by Freud that emphasizes unconscious mental processes in explaining human thought, feelings, and behaviour.

Behavioural approach

A view based on the assumption that human behaviour is determined mainly by what a person has learned in life, especially through rewards and punishments.

Cognitive approach

A view that emphasizes research on how the brain takes in information, creates perceptions, forms and retrieves memories, processes information, and generates integrated patterns of action.

Humanistic approach

A view of behaviour as controlled by the decisions that people make about their lives based on their perceptions of the world.

Sociocultural factors

Social identity and other background factors, such as gender, ethnicity, social class, and culture.

Culture

The accumulation of values, rules of behaviour, forms of expression, religious beliefs, and occupational choices for a group of people who share a common language and environment.

Critical thinking

The process of assessing claims and making judgments based on well-supported evidence.

School psychologists

Psychologists who test cognitive abilities, diagnose students' academic problems, and set up programs to improve students' achievement.

Hypothesis

In scientific research, a specific, testable proposition about a phenomenon.

Operational definitions

Statements that define phenomena or variables by describing the exact research operations or methods used in measuring or manipulating them.

Variables

Specific factors or characteristics that can take on different numerical values in research.

Statistical reliability

The degree to which test results or other research evidence occurs repeatedly.

Statistical validity

The degree to which evidence from a test or other research method measures what it is supposed to measure.

Theory

An integrated set of propositions used to explain certain phenomena, including behaviour and mental processes.

Observational methods

Procedures for systematically watching behaviour in order to summarize it for scientific analysis.

Naturalistic observation

The process of watching without interfering as a phenomenon occurs in the natural environment.

Case studies

Research involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or situation.

Surveys

Research that involves giving people questionnaires or interviews designed to describe their attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions.

Social psychologists

Psychologists who study how people influence one another's behaviour and attitudes, especially in groups.

Correlational studies

Research methods that examine relationships between variables in order to analyze trends, test predictions, evaluate theories, and suggest new hypotheses.

Correlation

The degree to which one variable is related to another.

Experiment

A situation in which the researcher manipulates one variable and observes the effect of that manipulation on another variable, while holding all other variables constant.

Independent variable

In an experiment, the variable manipulated by the researcher.

Dependent variable

In an experiment, the factor affected by the independent variable.

Experimental group

The group that receives the experimental treatment.

Control group

The group that receives no treatment or provides some other baseline against which to compare the performance or response of the experimental group.

Confound

Any factor that affects the dependent variable along with, or instead of, the independent variable.

Random variables

Uncontrolled or uncontrollable factors that affect the dependent variable along with, or instead of, the independent variable.

Randomizing

A procedure through which random variables are evenly distributed in an experiment by placing participants in experimental and control groups on the basis of a coin flip or some other random process.

Industrial and organizational psychologists

Psychologists who examine factors that influence people's performance in the workplace.

Placebo

A treatment that contains no active ingredient but produces an effect because the person believes it will.

Experimenter bias

A confound that occurs when an experimenter unintentionally encourages participants to respond in a way that supports the hypothesis.

Double-blind design

A research design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group.

Sampling

The process of selecting participants who are members of the population that the researcher wishes to study.

Representative sampling

A sample of research participants chosen from a larger population such that their age, gender, ethnicity, and other characteristics are typical of that larger population.

Random sampling

A group of research participants selected from a population, each of whose members had an equal chance of being chosen.

Biased sampling

A group of research participants selected from a population, each of whose members did not have an equal chance of being chosen.

Behavioural genetics

The study of how genes and environments interact to affect behaviour and mental processes.

Epigenetics

The study of potentially inheritable changes in gene expression that are caused by environmental factors that do not alter a cell's DNA.

Data

Numbers that represent research findings and provide the basis for conclusions.

Health psychologists

Psychologists who study the effects of behaviour on health, and the impact of illness on behaviour and emotion.

Statistical significance

Referring to a correlation or a difference between two groups that is larger than would be expected by chance.

Sport psychologists

Psychologists whose research is aimed at maximizing athletic performance.

Forensic psychologists

Psychologists who are involved in many aspects of psychology and law.

Engineering psychologists

Psychologists who study and try to improve the relationships between human beings and the computers and other machines they use.

Environmental psychologists

Psychologists who study the relationship between people's physical environment and their behaviour.

Empiricism

The view that knowledge comes from experience and observation.