Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/140

Click to flip

140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anarchy
The absence of governmental authority (7)
Arms control
Restrictions on the research, manufacture, or deployment of weapons systems and certain types of troops (274).
Asymmetric warfare
War between political actors of unequal strength in which the weaker party tries to neutralize its opponent's strength by exploiting the opponent's weakness (256)
Balance of power
any system in which actors (e.g. states) enjoy relatively equal power, such that no single state or coalition of states is able to dominate other actors in the system (33)
Behavioralism
An approach to the study of social science and international relations that posits that individuals and units like states act in regularized ways; leads to a belief that behaviors can be described, explained, and predicted (9).
Belief system
the organized and integrated perceptions of individuals in a society, including foreign-policy decision makers, often based on past history, that guide them to select certain policies over others (164)
Bipolarity
An international system in which there are two great powers or blocs of roughly equal strength or weight (63)
Bureaucratic politics
the model of foreign-policy decision making that posits that national decisions are the outcomes of bargaining among bureaucratic groups having competing interests; decisions reflect the relative strength of the individual bureaucratic players or of the organizations they represent (140)
Capitalism
the economic system in which the ownership of the means of production is in private hands; the system operates according to market forces whereby capital and labor move freely; according to radicals, an exploitative relationship between the owners of production and the workers (45)
CEDAW
Convention for the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women; adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1979, came into force in September 1981; the United States remains the only developed state which has not ratified the convention (358)
Cognitive Consistency
The tendency of individuals to accept information that is compatible with what has previously been accepted, often by ignoring inconsistent information; linked to the desire of individuals to be consistent in their attitudes (165)
Cold War
The era in international relations between the end of World War II and 1990, distinguished by ideological, economic, political, and military rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States (43)
Collective good
public goods that are available to all regardless of individual contribution - e.g., the air, the oceans, or Antartica - but that no one owns or is individually responsible for; with collective goods, decisions by one group or state have effects on other groups or states (183)
Collective security
the concept that agression against a state should be defeated collectively because aggression against one state is an aggression against all; basis of League of Nations and United Nations (78)
Colonialism
the 15th-20th century practice of founding, maintaining, and expanding colonies abroad. Colonialism, now universally delegitimized, was marked by two main motivations: (1) showing indigenous people how best to live (a "civilizing mission"); and (2) exploiting indigenous people and their territory for labor and material resources in order to increase the power of the colonial authority (30)
Comparative advantage
the ability of a country to make and export a good relatively more efficiently than other countries; the basis for the liberal economic principle that countries benefit from free trade among nations (287)
Compellence
the use of threats to coerce another into taking an action it otherwise would not take (134)
Complex peacekeeping
multidimensional operations using military and civilian personnel, often including traditional peacekeeping and nation-building activities; more dangerous because not all parties have consented and because force is usually used (193)
Constructivism
an alternative international relations theory that hypothesizes how ideas, norms, and institutions shape state identity and interests (84)
Containment
a foreign policy designed to prevent the expansion of an adversary by blocking its opportunities to exapnd, by supporting weaker states through foreign aid programs, and by the use of coercive force only to oppose an active attempt by an adversary to physically expand; the major U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union during the Cold War era (44)
Cultural relativism
the belief that human rights, ethics, and morality are determined by cultures and history and therefore are not universally the same (352)
Democratic peace
theory supported by empirical evidence that democratic states do not fight wars against each other, but do fight wars against authoritarian states (136, 233)
Demographic transition
the situation in which increasing levels of economic development lead to falling death rates, followed by falling birthrates (336)
Dependency theorists
individuals whose ideas are derived from radicalism, and explain poverty and underdevelopment in developing countries based on their historical dependence on and domination by rich countries (83)
Derivatives
financial instruments often derived from an asset (mortgages, loans, foreign exchange, interest rates) which parties agree to exchange over time; way of buying and selling risk international financial markets (295)
Detente
the easing of tense relations; in the context of this volume, detente refers to the relaxation and reappraisal of threat assessments by political rivals, for example, the United States and Soviet Union during the later years of the Cold War (55)
Deterrence
the policy of maintaining a large military force and arsenal to discourage any potential aggressor from taking action; states commit themselves to punish an aggressor state (56)
Diplomacy
the practice of states trying to influence the behavior of other states by bargaining negotiating, taking specific non-coercive actions or refraining from such actions, or appealing the the foreign public for support of a position (129)
Direct foreign investment
investing in another state, usually by multinational corporations, by establishing a manufacturing facility or developing an extractive industry (293)
Disarmament
the policy of eliminating a state's offensive weaponry; may occur for all classes of weapons or for specified weapons only; the logic of the policy is that fewer weapons leads to greater security (274)
Diversionary war
the theory that leaders start conflicts to divert attention from domestic problems (237)
Epistemic communities
transnational communities of experts and technical specialists who share a set of beliefs and a way to approach problems (333)
Ethnonational movements
the participation in organized political activity of self-conscious communities sharing an ethnic affiliation; some movements seek autonomy within an organized state; others desire separation and the formation of a new state; still others want to join with a different state (150)
European Union (EU)
a union of twenty-seven European states, formerly the European Economic Community; designed originally during the 1950s for economic integration but since expanded into a closer political and economic union (205)
Evoked set
the tendency to look for details in a contemporary situation that are similar to information previously obtained (166)
Externalities
in economics, unintended side effects that can have positive or negative consequences (341)
First-generation human rights
political or civil rights of citizens that prevent governmental authority from interfering with private individuals or civil society (negative rights) (350)
First-strike capability
the ability to launch a nuclear attack capable of completely preventing a retaliatory strike (135)
General Assembly
one of the major organs of the United Nations; generally adresses issues other than those of peace and security; each member state has one vote; operates with six functional committees composed of all member states (191)
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
founded by treaty in 1947 as the Bretton Woods institution responsible for negotiating a liberal international trade regime that included the principles of nondiscrimination in trade and most-favored-nation status; re-formed as the World Trade Organization in 1995 (293)
Global governance
structures and processes that enable actors to coordinate interdependent needs and interests in the absence of a unifying political authority (368)
Globalization
the process of increasing integration of the world in terms of economics, politics, communications, social relations, and culture; increasingly undermines traditional state sovereignty (144)
Group of 7 (G7)
group of traditional economic powers (U.S., Great Britain, France, Japan, Germany, Italy, Canada) who meet annually to address economic problems; when Russia joins, the G-8 discussions turn to political issues.
Group of 77
a coalition of about 125 developing countries that press for reforms in economic relations between developing and developed countries; also referred to as the South (191)
Group of 20
group of finance ministers and heads of central banks (recently heads of state) of major economic powers, including China, Russia, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, as well as representatives from the G-7; meets periodically to discuss economic issues (191)
Groupthink
the tendency for small groups to form a consensus and resist criticism of a core position, often disregarding contradictory information in the process; group may ostracize members holding a different position (167)
Guerrila warfare
the use of irregular armed forces to undermine the will of an incumbent government (or its foreign support) by selectively attacking the government's vulnerable points or personnel over a prolonged period of time; guerrillas hide among the people the aim to represent, and as such tend to place ordinary citizens and great risk; guerrillas require both social support (or at a minimum, social apathy) and sanctuary (either a remote base in a rugged environment or a weakly defended international border) in order to survive, and by surviving, to win (253)
Hegemon
a dominant state that has preponderance of power; often establishes and enforces the rules and norms in the international system (33)
Hegemonic stability theorists
those who support the theory that a dominant state is needed to support an integrated world economy; the hegemon is willing to bear the costs of maintaining the system (285)
Humanitarian intervention
actions by states, international organizations, or the international community in general, to intervene usually with coercive force, to alleviate human suffering without necessarily obtaining consent of the state (263)
Human security
a concept of security broadened to include the protection of individuals from systematic violence, environmental degradation, and health disasters; the concept gained ground after the Cold War due to the inability or unwillingness of states (see also "responsibility to protect") to adequately protect their own citizens (189)
Hypotheses
tenative statements about casual relationships put forward to explore and test its logical and usually its empirical consequences (67)
Imperialism
the policy and practice of extending the domination of one state over another through territorial conquest or economic domination; in radicalism, the final stage of expansion of the capitalist system (30)
Institutions
processes and structures of social order around which relatively stable individual and group expectations and identities converge; for example, in most places the contemporary institution of marriage is a simultaneously social, political, and economic one (233)
Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs)
international agencies or bodies established by states and controlled by member states that deal with areas of common interests (181)
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
the Bretton Woods institution originally charged with helping states deal with temporary balance-of-payments problems; now plays a broader role in assisting debtor developing states by offering loans to those who institute specific policies, or structural adjustment programs (291)
International regimes
the rules, norms, and procedures that are developed by states and international organizations of of their common concerns and are used to organize common activities (186)
International relations
the study of the interactions among various actors (states, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and subnational entities like bureaucracies, local governments, and individuals) that participate in international politics (3)
International society
the states and substate actors in the international system and the institutions and norms that regulate their interaction; implies that these actors communicate, sharing common interests, and a common identity; identified with British school of political theory (103)
Intrastate wars
organized and deliberate violence within a state which results in at least one thousand battle-related deaths per year; civil wars are by far the most common form of intrastate war, but some terrorist attacks within states have exceeded the one-thousand deaths threshold, and might therefore be counted as wars (245)
Interstate war
Organized violence between internationally-recognized states which results in at least one thousand deaths from combat in a calendar year; since 1900, wars between states have been responsible for the greatest concentration of deaths in a relatively short period of time in world history - for example, World War II resulted in fifty to seventy million casualties from 1939 to 1945 (245)
Irredentism
the demands of ethnonationalist groups to take political control of territory historically or ethnically related to them by separating from their parent state or taking territory from other states (119)
Islamic fundamentalism
believers within Islam who offer a critique of secular states and seek to change states and individual behaviors to conform to a strict reading of Islamic texts (147)
Just war tradition
the idea that wars must be judged according to two catagories of justice: (1) "Jus ad bellum", or the justness of war itself; and (2) "Jus in bello", or the justness of each actor's conduct in war (261)
League of Nations
the international organization formed at the conclusion of World War I for the purpose of preventing another war; based on collective security (38)
Legitimacy
the moral and legal right to rule, which is based on law, custom, heredity, or the consent of the governed (24)
Levels of analysis
analytical framework based on the ideas that events in international relations can be explained by looking at individuals, states, or the international system and that causes at each level can be separated from causes at other levels (68)
Liberalism
the theoretical perspective based on the asusmption of the innate goodness of the individual and the value of political institutions in promoting social progress (76)
Limited wars
armed conflicts usually between states in which belligerents acknowledged limits on both the resources applied to an armed conflict, and on the political objectives sought by means of war (namely, some objective less than the total defeat of the adversary or its unconditional surrender) (248)
Malthusian dilemma
the situation that population growth rates will increase faster than agricultural productivity, leading to food shortages; named after Thomas Malthus (336)
Mercantilism
economic theory that international commerce should increase a state's wealth, especially gold; state power is enhanced by a favorable balance of trade (284)
Mirror images
the tendency of individuals and groups to see in one's opponent the opposite characteristics as those seen in one's self (166)
Moral hazard
problem when states or individuals are not made to pay the consequences of reckless behavior; they have little incentive to change that behavior (296)
Most-favored-nation principle (MFN)
principle in international trade agreements when states promise to give another state the same treatment in trade as the first state gives to its most-favored trading partner (293)
Multinational corporations (MNCs)
private enterprises with production facilities, sales, or activities in several states (83)
Multipolar
an international system in which there are several states or great powers of roughly equal strength or weight (63)
Nation
a group of people sharing a common language, history, or culture (25, 116)
National interest
the inerest of the state, most basically the protection of territory and sovereignty; in realist thinking, the interest is a unitary one defined in terms of the pursuit of power; in liberal thinking, there are many national interests; in radical thinking, it is the interest of a ruling elite (70)
Nationalism
devotion and allegiance to the nation and the shared characteristics of its peoples; used to motivate people to patriotic acts sometimes leading a group to seek dominance over another group (24)
Nation-state
the entity formed when people sharing the same historical, cultural, or linguistic roots form their own state with borders, a government, and international recognition; trend began with French and American Revolutions. (117)
Negative externalities
economies term for costly (harmful) unintended consequences of exchange, in political terms, a negative externality of a failed government might be refugees; in counter-insurgency, a negative externality for an incumbent government fighting insurgents might be increased terrorist group recruitment as a result of deliberately or inadvertently harming noncombatants in disputed areas (341)
Neoliberal institutionalism
a reinterpretation of liberalism that posits that even in an anarchic international system, states will cooperate because of their continuous interactions with eachother and because it is in their self-interests to do so; institutions provide the framework for cooperative interactions. (78)
Neorealism
a reinterpretation of realism that posits that the structure of the international system is the most important level to study; states behave the way they do because of the structure of the international system; includes the belief that general laws can be found to explain events (73)
New International Economic Order (NIEO)
a list of demands by the Group of 77 to reform economic relations between the North and the South, that is, between developed countries and the developing countries (105)
Niche diplomacy
approach of some states to concentrate diplomat efforts in a few areas of activity to increase power, often in human security issues (132)
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
private associations of individuals or groups that engage in political, economic, or social activities usually across national borders (137, 181)
Normative
relating to ethical rules; in foreign policy and international affairs, standards suggesting what a policy should be (9)
North
the developed countries, mostly in the Northern Hemisphere, including the countries of North America, the European countries, and Japan (104)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
military and political alliance between Western European states and the United States established in 1948 for the purpose of defending Europe from aggression by the Soviet Union and its allies; post-Cold War expansion to Eastern Europe (49)
Offshore Financial Centers
states or jurisdictions with few regulations on banking and financial transactions, often with low taxation; used by individuals and international banks to transfer funds (295)
Organizational politics
the foreign-policy decision making model that posits that national decisions are the products of subnational governmental organizations and units; the standard operating procedures and processes of the organizations largely determine the policy; major changes in policy are unlikely (139)
Peacebuilding
post-conflict political and economic activities designed to preserve and strengthen peace settlements, includes civil administration, elections, and economic development activities (193)
Portfolio investment
private investment in another state by purchasing stocks on bonds, without taking direct control of the investments (293)
Power
the ability to influence others and also to control outcomes so as to produce results that would not have occurred naturally (124)
Power potential
a measure of the power an entity like a state could have, derived from a consideration of both its tangible and its intangible resources; states may not always be able to transfer their power potential into actual power (124)
Prisoner's Dillemma
a theoretical game in which rational players (states or individuals) chose options that lead to outcomes (payoffs) such that all players are worse off than under a different set of choices (78)
Public diplomacy
use of certain diplomatic methods to create a favorable image of the state or its people in the eyes of other states and their publics; methods include, for example, goodwill tours, cultural and student exchanges, and media presentations (131)
Radicalism
a social theory, formulated by Karl Marx and modified by other theorists, that posits that class conflict between owners and workers will cause the eventual demise of capitalism; offers a critique of capitalism (81, 286)
Rational actor
in realist thinking, an individual or state that uses logical reasoning to select a policy; that is, it has a defined goal to achieve, considers a full range of alternative strategies, and selects the policy that bests achieves the goal (71)
Realism
a theory of international relations that emphasizes states' interest in accumulating power to ensure security in an anarchic world; based on the notion that individuals are power seeking and that states act in the pursuit of their own national interest defined in terms of power (70)
Sanctions
economic, diplomatic, and even coercive military force for enforcing an international policy or another state's policy; sanctions can be positive (offering an incentive to a state) or negative (punishing a state) (132)
Satisfice
in decision making theory, the tendency of states and their leaders to settle for the minimally acceptable solution, not for the best possible outcome, in order to reach a consensus and formulate a policy (141)
Second-generation human rights
social and economic rights that states are obligated to provide their citizenry, including the rights to medical care, jobs, and housing (positive rights) (350)
Second-strike capability
in the age of nuclear weapons, the ability of a state to respond and hurt an adversary after a first strike has been launched against that state by the adversary; ensures that both sides will suffer an unacceptable level of damage (135)
Security dilemma
the situation in which one state improves its military capabilities, especially its defenses, and those improvements are seen by other states as threats; each state in an anarchic international system tries to increase its own level of protection leading to insecurity in others, often leading to an arms race (232)
Security Council
one of the major organs of the United Nations charged with the responsibility for peace and security issues; includes five permanent members with veto power and ten non permanent members chosen from the General Assembly (190)
Sex trafficking
highly coercive and profitable organized criminal activity which forces mainly young women (but also young boys and some older women) to exchange sex for cash; distinguished by treatment of humans as disposable objects, and by interstate exchange (transport systematically isolates trafficked individuals from their language, culture, friends,and family; thus increasing their vulnerability) (361)
Smart sanctions
limited sanctions targeted to hurt or support specific groups; used to avoid the humanitarian costs of general sanctions (134)
Socialism
an economic and social system that relies on intensive government intervention or public ownership of the means of production in order to distribute wealth among the population more equitably; in radical theory, the stage between capitalism and communism. (45)
Soft power
ability to change a target's behavior based on the legitimacy of one's ideas or policies, rather than on material power (economic or military) (128)
South
the developing countries of Africa, Latin America, and southern Asia (104)
Sovereignty
the authority of the state, based on recognition by other states and by nonstate actors, to govern matters within its own borders that affect its people, economy, security, and forms of government (21)
Sovereign wealth funds
state-controlled ivnestment companies that manage large foreign exchange reserves; located in China or in petroleum-exporting countries (Norway, the Gulf states, Saudi Arabia) (295)
State
an organized political unit that has a geographic territory, stable population, and a government to which the population owes allegiance and that is legally recognized by other states. (116)
Statism
modern version of mercantilism; use of state power to achieve economic and social goals (284)
Stratification
the uneven distribution of resources among different groups of individuals and states (104)
Structural adjustment programs
IMF policies and recommendations aimed to guide states out of balance-of-payment difficulties and economic crises (301)
Summits
talks and meetings among the highest-level government officials from different countries; designed to promote good relations and provide a forum to discuss issues and conclude formal negotiations (55)
Superpowers
highest-power states as distinguished from other great powers; term coined during the Cold War and referred to the United States and Soviet Union (44)
Sustainable development
an approach to economic development that tries to reconcile current economic growth and environmental protection with the needs of future generations. (300)
System
a group of units or parts united by some form of regular interaction, in which a change in one unit causes changes in the others; these interactions occur in regularized ways (93)
Terrorism
the use of organized political violence by non-state actors against noncombatants in order to cause fear as a means to achieve a political or religious objective; a form of asymmetric warfare (257)
Theory
generalized statements about political, social, or economic activities that seek to describe and explain those activities; used in many cases as a basis of prediction (67)
Third-generation human rights
collective rights of groups, including the right of ethnic or indigenous minorities and designated special groups such as women and children, and the rights to democracy and development, among others (351)
Total war
armed conflicts usually among multiple powerful states involving widespread destruction and major loss of life in which participants acknowledge no limits on the use of force to achieve their political aims, and in which those aims encompass an adversary's unconditional surrender (246)
Track-two diplomacy
unofficial overtures by private individuals or groups to try and resolve an ongoing international crisis or civil war (168)
Traditional peacekeeping
the use of multilateral third-party military forces to achieve several different objectives, general to address and contain interstate conflict, including the enforcement of cease-fires and separation of forces; used during the Cold War to prevent conflict among the great powers from escalating (193)
Transnational
across national or traditional state boundaries; can refer to actions of various nonstate actors, such as private individuals and nongovernmental organizations (56)
Transnational movements
groups of people from different states who share religious, ideological, or policy beliefs and who work together to change the status quo (146)
Treaties of Westphalia
treaties ending the Thirty Years War in Europe in 1648; in international relations represents the beginning of state sovereignty within a territorial space (22)
Unitary actor
the state as an actor that speaks with one voice and has a single national interest; realists assume states are unitary actors (71)
Universal Jurisdiction
a legal concept that permits states to claim legal authority beyond their national territory for the purpose of punishing a particularly heinous criminal that violates the laws of all states or protecting human rights (222)
Universal rights
human rights believed to be basically the same at all times and in all cultures, a controversial notion. (352)
War on terrorism
a powerful rhetorical call to exploit a given society's totally available resources (both material and non-material) in order to defeat a political tactic; a key implication of declaring "war on terrorism" is that few if any limits on the use of a society's resources either should or will be observed. (62)
Warsaw Pact
the military alliance formed by the states of the Soviet bloc in 1955 in response to the rearmament of West Germany and its inclusion in NATO; permitted the stationing of soviet troops in Eastern Europe (49)
Washington Consensus
the liberal belief that only through specific liberal economic policies, especially privatization, can development result (300)
Weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
Chemical, biological, or radiological weapons distinguished by an inability to restrict their destructive effects to a single time or place; they therefore share a quality of irrationality in their contemplated use because attackers can never be entirely protected from the harm of any attacks they initiate with such weapons (62, 252)
World Bank
a global lending agency focused on financing projects in developing countries; formally known as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, established as one of the key Bretton Woods institutions to deal with reconstruction and development after World War II (291)
World Trade Organization (WTO)
intergovernmental organization designed to support principles of liberal free trade; includes enforcement measures and dispute settlement mechanisms; established in 1995 to replace the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (296)
To Kat:
Hope this helps out somehow. Love you.