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22 Cards in this Set

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Very volatile (gaseous) organic compounds (VVOC)
Examples: Propane, butane, methyl chloride
Boiling point range: <0 to 50-100 C
Volatile organic compounds (VOC)
Examples: Formaldehyde, d-Limonene, toluene, acetone, toluene, ethanol (ethyl alcohol) 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol), hexanal, MTBE
Boiling point range: 50-100 to 240-260 C
Semi volatile organic compounds (SVOC)
Pesticides (DDT, chlordane, plasticizers (phthalates), fire retardants (PCBs, PBB))
Boiling Point Range: 240-260 to 380-400 C
Why is methane not considered a VOC?
Only some VOCs are considered “reactive” enough to be of concern. VOCs that are non-reactive or of negligible reactivity to form ozone under these conditions are exempted from the definition of VOCs used by EPA in its regulation.
Definition of VOCs indoors
When discussing indoor environments, all organic chemical compounds that can volatize under normal indoor atmospheric conditions of temperature and pressure are VOCs.
VOCs found during USGS aquifer study
The most frequently detected VOCs were chloroform, the solvents PCE and TCE, and the gasoline oxygenate MTBE
What are some sources of VOCs?
Sources of emissions related to outdoor VOCs include solvent use, on road vehicles, non road equipment, industrial processes, fires and more.
Clean Air Act
42 U.S.C. §7401 et seq. (1970)

The Clean Air Act, like other laws enacted by Congress, was incorporated into the United States Code as Title 42, Chapter 85.
The Clean Air Act (CAA) is the comprehensive federal law that regulates air emissions from stationary and mobile sources. Among other things, this law authorizes EPA to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public health and public welfare and to regulate emissions of hazardous air pollutants.

History of PCBs
PCBs, valued for chemical stability and fire resistance, were manufactured and processed primarily for use as insulating fluids and coolants in electrical equipment and machinery from 1929-1977.
Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR)
Title 40: Protection of Environment is the section of the CFR that deals with EPA's mission of protecting human health and the environment.
http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?sid=ffb1feaa2101bd6ffa443f5c3107fff2&c=ecfr&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title40/40tab_02.tpl
Name Non-Scope Items in a Phase I Enironmental Site Assessment
Asbestos, Lead-Based Paint,
Mold, Radon, Lead in drinking water, wetlands, threatened and endangered species, earthquake hazard, vapor intrusion
Allowed but not required. Required components are: Hazardous substances, petroleum products, storage tanks, odors, pools of liquid, drums, PCBs, Unidentified containers, stressed vegetation, solid waste, wells, waste water
Purpose of a phase II environmental site assessment compared to Phase I
Phase 1 = Identify
Phase 2 = Evaluate
What comes after a phase II environmental site assessment?
Either no action or an RI/FS (remedial/feasibility study)
What does COC stand for?
chain of custody (should accompany shipments of environmental media samples
What can be measured using a GC (gas chromatograph)?
organic compounds
(Need GC/MS to measure PCBs or TCE)
Air sparging targets which contaminant groups?
VOCs and fuels
Methane can be used as an amendment to the sparged air to enhance co-metabolism of chlorinated organics
Why do liquids and gases take on the shape of their containers?
Fluids are resistant to shear forces and deform continuously.
What is another way of saying viscosity?
resistance to motion
Do liquid or gas molecules have stronger forces of attraction?
Liquid molecules are relatively close together and have strong forces of attraction. They travel short distances to bump into each other. (Low Kinetic Energy)
Most fluid problems assume what type of fluid?
Ideal fluid, newtonian fluids, or non-newtonian fluids
Assume real fluids with Newtonian characteristics
What is the difference between absolute and gauge pressure?
Absolute pressure is measured with respect to a true zero pressure value. Gauge pressures are measured with respect to atmospheric pressure.
True or false: Barometric pressure is synonymous with atmospheric pressure
True