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85 Cards in this Set

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Endocrine Gland

Secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream to act on/In target cells

Hypothalamus

Regulates the pituitary

Steroid hormones

Need carrier to directly enter cell

Non-Steroid hormone

Soluble in blood; acts on the receptors on cell surface. Does NOT need a carrier

Negative Feedback System

Deviation from normal values initiates a response (secretion); the response (secretion decreases as values return to normal

Feedback System

How internal conditions are kept within set limits

Positive feedback system

Moves the controlled condition further away from homeostasis; childbirth and coagulation

Steps of the feedback system

1. hypothalamus


2. Pituitary


3. Target gland

What is an antagonist hormone?

An antagonist hormone opposes another hormone; if one rises the other lowers

True or False


Inherent dysfunction of the gland or of the gland that activates it

TRUE: the problem can be "upstream" that results in the gland not working

Example of antagonist hormone

Parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium levels; calcitonin released from the thyroid decreases blood calcium levels

Are hormones released at a constant?

Hormone rates vary; some are constant, intermittent/on demand, sleep/wake cycles

What is an endocrine disorder?

It is a problem with too much or too little of a hormone

What is a common cause of endocrine disorders?

ADENOMAS!!

Define hypersecrete

When a gland releases too much of a hormone

What is a cause of hyposecretion?

Gland destruction. Initially, because of cell destruction you can have hypersecretion from hormones being liberated from the glands cells. As the gland destruction progresses, the result is hyposecretiom

What are 3 causes of endocrine disorders?

1. Adenomas


2. Feedback System failure


3. Ectopic hormone release

Negative Feedback failure

Secretes too much; doesn't turn off

Positive feedback failure

Secretes too little; doesn't turn on

An example of ectopic hormone release?

Some lung cancers secrete ADH

3 examples of cell surface receptor-associated disorders; target cell failure

1. Decreased # of receptors


2. Impaired receptors


3. Antibodies present against receptors

4 types or target cell failure

1. Cell surface receptor associated disorder


2. intracellular disorder


3. inhibitors


4. Dysfunctional delivery

What is meant by dysfunctional delivery?

1. Inadequate carrier proteins for steroid hormones


2. Poor blood supply

What is meant by intracellular disorders?

issue with a secondary messenger system for non - steroidal hormones

Role of hypothalamus

1.Regulates the pituitary gland


2.ADH and oxytocin are made in the hypothalamus and then STORED in pituitary

Role of pituitary gland

"Master Gland"; controls other gland activities

How many lobes does the pituitary gland have?

It has 2 lobes; anterior and posterior

Growth Hormone

Released by pituitary; stimulates growth within the body

Prolactin

Released by the pituitary; milk production

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Released by pituitary;


- females: growth and maturity of ovarian follicle


-males: spermatogenesis

Luteinizing Hormone

Released from pituitary; Works in conjunction with FSH


-females: follicle maturation (estrogen and progesterone)


- males: increases testosterone; sperm maturation

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Released from pituitary; controls the releae of thyroid hormone; simulates growth and function of thyroid gland

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Released by pituitary; stimulates growth of adrenal gland cortex and corticosteroid secretion

What is a common source of pituitary abnormalities?

ADENOMAS

What are 3 things that can cause pituitary damage?

1. damage from trauma


2. tumor


3. infection


* since the pituitary is controlled by the hypothalamus, a dysfunction there can affect the pituitary

Acromegaly

Hypersecretion of GH in adulthood


-broader, heavier bones

Gigantism
Hypersecretion of GH in children and adolescents
Proportionate Dwarfism
Hyposecretion of GH in children and adolescents
Hypersecretion of PROLACTIN

-caused by prolactinomas


*hyposecretion and hypersecretion of prolactin affects fertility in both sexes

Symptoms of hyperprolactinemia

In both sexes: infertility, decreased sex drive, bone loss


Females: amenorrhea, hirsutism


Males: ED, gynecomastia

Diabetes Insipidus

disorder that causes imbalance of water in the body


Symptoms: polydipsia, polyuria

Where is the parathyroid glands
The parathyroid glands are nodules on the back of the thyroid gland. They
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Increases blood calcium levels; antagonist of thyroid hormone
Hypoparathyroidism

Sx


1. Hypocalcemia


-causes decreased heart contractions, and increased muscle and nerve excitability


2. hyperphosphatemia


-PTH decrease phosphate absorption in KIDs

Hyperparathyroidism

Sx


1. Hypercalcemia


-increased heart contractions, and decreased muscle and nerve stiulation


2. Hypophostphatemia


3. KID stones


4. Pathologic fractures

PRIMARY hyperparathyroidism

PRIMARY; excessive secretion of PTH from the gland itself; typically from adenoma

SECONDARY hyperparathyroidism

SECONDARY; ezcessive secretion of PTH from parathyroid glands as a result of a disease like renal failure

Calcitonin

Released by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium levels



What are 3 thyroid hormones

1. T3


2. T4


3. Calcitonin

The hypothalamus causes TSH secretion from the pituitary gland by what 2 hormones?
T3 and T4
Goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid gland; can be present in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
Most common cause of hyperthyroidism
Graves Disease; autoimmune disease
SX of Graves Disease

1. Bulging eyes


2. hypermetabolic state


3. thin hair

Thyrotoxic Crisis/ Thyroid Storm
Combination of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism, preceded by infection/surgery; life-threatening
PRIMARY hypothyroidism

dysfunction of the gland itself

SECONDARY hypothyroidism
pituitary dysfunction
SX of hypo thyroidism

1. hair loss


2. Puffy face


3. muscle weakness

thyroiditis
inflammation of the thyroid
Adrenal cortex produces what types of hormones
steroid hormones: aldosterone, cortisol, androgens
Adrenal medulla produces

norepinephrine, epinephrine

Cushing DISEASE

Increased secretion of ACTH from pituitary (pituitary adenoma) increasing cortisol production in the adrenal cortex

Cushing SYNDROME

The SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS related to increased cortisol from adrenal cortex regardless of cause

Cushing Sx

1. Moon face


2. Excessive sweating


3. trunk obesity

Hypersecretion of adrenal cortex gonadocorticoids

-feminization in males


-virilization in females

Hyposecretion of adrenal cortex gonadocorticoids
inferitility in females
Pheochromocytoma
RARE benign adrenal medullary tumor
Sx of pheochromocytoma

1. HTN


2. headache


3. anxiety

neuroblastoma
pediactric malignancy that typically originates in the adrenal glands
Islets of Langerhans
endocrine cells of the pancreas

alpha cells of the pancreas


glucagon; increase blood glucose
beta cells of the pancreas
produce insulin; lowers glucose levels, slows gastric emptying and inhibits glucagon production
Diabetes Mellitus
Disease in which your body is unable to produce insulin or has a decreased cellular response to insulin
Roles of Insulin

1. allows transport of glucose into the tissues, decreasing blood glucose levels


2. promotes storage of glucose


3. prevents fat breakdown


4. increases protein synthesis

True of False


ALL cells need a carrier to get insulin in

False; some tissues do not need a carrier for insulin to enter
Where does the production of insulin take place
produced by the pancreatic beta cells in the islets of Langerhans
Types of Diabetes

Type 1


Type 2


Insipidus

Type 1 diabetes

Juvenile or insulin dependent


-beta cell defect/destruction


-pancreatic atrophy

Type 2 diabetes
mature/adult onset, non-insulin dependent
SX of type 1 diabetes

1. polydipsia


2. polyuria


3. polyphagia (however, weight-loss due to fat breakdown)

Risk factors for Type 2 diabetes

1. obesity


2. age


3. inactivity


4. HTN


5. Family Hx


6. GDM

SX of type 2 diabetes

1. fatigue


2. visual changes


3. pruritus

diabetic ketoacidosis

MEDICAL EMERGENCY: the body does not produce enough insulin; the liver is unable to keep up with processing the volume of ketones as a result of fats being broken down as an energy source creating ketones

Sx of diabetic ketoacidosis

1. polyuria


2. polydipsia


3. nausea and vomitting


4.fruity/acetone breath


5. confusion


6. hyperglycemia

Neuropathy (damage or disease of the nerves)

Most common chronic complication of DM


1. impaired sensation


2. weakness


3. paresthesias

Common complications from DM

1. infection due to poor perfusion, hyperglycemia, and delayed healing


2. cataracts


3. pregnancy complications