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26 Cards in this Set

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Name four possible causes of allergic reactions

-Insects


-Foods


-Plants


-Medications




Ch. 20, pg. 560-561

Skin signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction or anaphylactic shock:

-Itching


-Hives


-Flushing


-Swelling of the face


-Warm, tingling feeling in the face, mouth, chest, feet, and hands




Ch. 20, pg. 563

Respiratory signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction or anaphylactic shock:

-Patient may report a feeling of tightness in the throat or chest


-Cough


-Rapid breathing


-Labored, noisy breathing


-Hoarseness, muffled voice, or loss of voice entirely


-Stridor


-Wheezing




Ch. 20, pg. 563

Cardiac signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction or anaphylactic shock:

-Increased heart rate


-Decreased blood pressure




Ch. 20, pg. 563

Generalized signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction or anaphylactic shock

-Itchy, watery eyes


-Headache


-Runny nose


-Patient expresses a sense of impending doom




Ch. 20, pg. 563

"To be considered a severe allergic reaction, or anaphylaxis, the patient must have either ________________ or _________________."

-Respiratory distress


-Signs and symptoms of shock




Ch. 20, pg. 563

Common respiratory complaints in anaphylaxis

-Moderate to severe dyspnea


-Tightness in chest




Ch. 20, pg. 564

Common respiratory sounds in anaphylaxis

-Wheezing


-Muffled voice


-Stridor




Ch. 20, pg. 564

Common skin textures in anaphylaxis

Generalized hives




Ch. 20, pg. 564

Common skin colors in anaphylaxis

-Generalized pallor


-Flushed skin




Ch. 20, pg. 564

Common swelling areas in anaphylaxis

-Face


-Lips


-Eyes


-Tongue


-Mouth


-Injection site




Ch. 20, pg. 564

Common vital signs in anaphylaxis

-Tachycardia


-Hypotension


-Tachypnea


-Decreased oxygen saturation




Ch. 20, pg. 564

Common mental statuses in anaphylaxis

Feeling of impending doom




Ch. 20, pg. 564

Indications for epinephrine auto-injectors

Must meet following three criteria:


-Patient exhibits signs of a severe allergic reaction, including either respiratory distress or shock


-Medication is prescribed for this patient by a physician or is carried on the ambulance


-Medical direction authorizes use for this patient




Ch. 20, pg. 569

Contraindications for epinephrine auto-injectors

No contraindications when used in a life-threatening situation




Ch. 20, pg. 569

Medication form for epinephrine auto-injectors

Liquid is administered by an auto-injector--an automatically injectable needle-and-syringe system




Ch. 20, pg. 569

Dosage for epinephrine auto-injectors

-Adult: one adult auto-injector (0.3 mg)


-Infant and child: one infant/child auto-injector (0.15 mg)




Ch. 20, pg. 569

Actions of epinephrine auto-injector

-Dilates the bronchioles


-Constricts blood vessels


-Makes the capillaries less permeable (leaky)




Ch. 20, pg. 569

Side effects of epinephrine auto-injector

-Increased heart rate


-Pallor


-Dizziness


-Chest pain


-Headache


-Nausea


-Vomiting


-Excitability, anxiety




Ch. 20, pg. 569

Reassessment strategies for epinephrine auto-injector

1. Transport


2. Continue secondary assessment of ABC's


3. Consider further care and assessment based on patient's decline/improvement




Ch. 20, pg. 569

Definition: allergen

Something that causes an allergic reaction




Ch. 20, pg. 572

Definition: allergic reaction

An exaggerated immune response




Ch. 20, pg. 572

Definition: anaphylaxis

A severe or life-threatening allergic reaction in which the blood vessels dilate, causing a drop in blood pressure, and the tissues lining the respiratory system swell, interfering with the airway. Also called anaphylactic shock




Ch. 20, pg. 572

Definition: auto-injector

A syringe preloaded with medication that has a spring-loaded device that pushes the needle through the skin when the tip of the device is pressed firmly against the body




Ch. 20, pg. 572

Definition: epinephrine

A hormone produced by the body. As a medication, it constricts blood vessels and dilates respiratory passages and is used to relieve severe allergic reactions




Ch. 20, pg. 572

Definition: hives

Red, itchy, possibly raised blotches on the skin that often result from allergic reactions




Ch. 20, pg. 572