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27 Cards in this Set

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steps of the evolutionary process
1. Variation
2. Natural Selection
3. Genetic Divergence
4. Reproductive Isolation
5. Speciation
adaptation
solution to an environmental problem
anabolism
metabolism; chemical reaction that build up smaller molecules to larger ones
anaerobic fermentation
in plants, when O2 is not present (produces a little bit of ATP)

Ex. Alcohol production
ATP
cellular respiration makes energy, the breakdown of glucose produces energy in the form of heat and ATP
Cellular Respiration (written definition)
the process of converting potential chemical energy (food) into usable biochemical energy

general term for the metabolic process of the breakdown of glucose into its component parts
Cellular Respiration (chemical definition)
C6 H12 O2 + O2 --> CO2 + H2O + ATP + heat E
anaerobic respiration
in animals, when O2 is not present (produces a little bit of ATP)
carbon fixation
process of securing carbon from the environment by incorporating it into a stable organic compound; the process of turning a gaseous form into a less volatile form
aerobic respiration
a breakdown pathway that uses oxygen to extract energy very efficiently from glucose and other carbohydrates
catabolism
part of metabolism; breaks large chemicals into smaller ones
CO2 Regulation Views
1. Biochemical view: Atm CO2 is regulated primarily by organisms

2. Geochemical view: Atm CO2 is regulated primarily by the environment

3. Biogeographical view: (most scientists support this) fusion of biochemical view and geochemical view with strong human influence
citric acid cycle (Kreb's cycle)
in mitochrondria, aerobic process (requires O2)

produces lots of electrons and ATP

second stage of cellular respiration

produces NADH, FADH2, 2 ATP molecules
cuticle
the waxy non-cellular material that occurs on the epidermis of a leaf and helps conserve water
concentration gradient
difference in concentration in adjoining regions of fluids

aka

the differential concentration of a molecule in solution
diffusion
net movement of molecules of ions from a region where they are more concentrated to a region where they are less so (perfume being smelled from across the room)
Gaia hypothesis
Lovelock and Margulis

Earth described as a "superorganism"

physical and chemical condition of earth is made fit and comfortable for organisms by organisms themselves

aka, relatively stable climate

process is coined, homeostasis
mass extinction
irrevocable loss of a species
homonid
extinct human like species or living human of a lineage starting with the last shared ancestor of apes and humans
photosynthesis (written)
the process of converting light energy into potential chemical energy
photosynthesis (chemical)
CO2 + H2O ++ light --> C6 H12 O6 + O2
pheromones
Four kinds:
1. Deterrents
2. Attractants
3. Suppressants
4. Stimulants

Volatile chemicals (easily vaporized)
phloem
photosynthate flows through
secondary metabolism
reduces secondary metabolites
primary metabolism
photosynthesis; cellular respiration
pigment
molecules that capture light
mesophyll
where photosynthesis takes place
- 2 types of cells:
palisade cells
spongy mesophyll
- vascular bundles (xylem)