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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
unmotivated - does it exist? why or why not?
no such thing - depends on goal. motivated to do nothing and to rest.
processes that energize direct and sustained behavior
intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation
intrinsic = motivated by the task itself. the task is the motivation/reward. extrinsic - the outcome of the task (that is external to the task itself) is the motivation/reward
relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
trade off - introduction of external stimulus replaces the internal stimulus. grades and evaluation reduce kids' intrinsic motivation.
behavioral theories of motivation
skinner - extrinsic
humanistic theories of motivation
we're motivated to fulfill our personal potential. intrinsic. self discovery, self esteem, self concept, self determination.
maslow and motivation
humanistic - BEING NEEDS - self actualization, aesthetic needs, need to know. satisfaction increases needs. DEFICIENCY NEEDS: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs.
examples of safety needs
security - not getting killed
examples of belongingness and love neds
divorce/death in family
examples of esteem needs
self esteem = overall sense of feeling worthy - having worth in the world. if it's ok to be derogated, you feel unworthy.
how do teachers apply maslow?
attempt to target the deficiency needs that you CAN target
self actualization
very vague. ghandi
satisfaction's impact on needs
being needs - increase with satisfaction. deficiency needs - decrease with satisfaction
social cognitive theories of motivation
more intrinsic than extrinsic.
self efficacy
bandura - belief that one has the skills needed to complete a task
expectancy by value theory
bandura - motiation = expectancy (efficacy) X value. The value part gets lost bc teachers don't teach why you're learning something and why it's important. Also bc students can care about the task but not about the grades.
Teacher efficacy
Teacher's belief that s/he can effectively engage and promote learning in students. High teacher efficacy -> success with students. Especially important with at-risk students. very highly correlated with student success.
efficacy and skill
high efficacy can eventually increase skill.
attributions for success/failure on tests (stu responses)
SUCCESS: interested in topic, studied all night, focused while studying, less work near test time, highlight material, confidence in study strategy, didn't procrastinate, test formatted well, make sure to understand well, spread out studying, test was exactly like study guide, study group, paid attention to lecture, persevered in face of misunderstanding FAILURE: overconfidence in ability, lack of sleep, missed class, didn't read text, overthinking answers, not interested in topic, didn't ask for help when needed, not enough studying, exam was hard, distracted by things out of school, not enough time during test
Bernard Weiner attribution theory
locus: is the cause internal or external. stability: is the cause likely to change? internal/external stable/unstable
failure definition
subjective - getting a B or failing
attributional approach to explaining achievement motivation
attributions for successes and failures = task outcomes (successes and failures) + feedback (ability vs effort: general vs specific). task outcomes also influence the feedback part
difference ebtween entity and incremental views of intelligence/ability
entity = intellience/ability is fixed and can't be changed. students that have this attribution that believe they are naturally brilliant are likely to say "the teacher hates me" - unlikely to study. Incremental - inteligence/ability can be improved. Incremental - ingelligence can be improved.
general vs specific feedback
general = 'good job'. specific = 'i'm good at x y but need to work on z'
attributions for successes and failures
influenced by task outcomes (success/failure) and feedback (ability vs effort, general s specific). the attributions themselves influence academic self-esteem (high/low) - if you blame someone else your self-esteem is protected.
self esteem and attributions for s/f
persons high in self esteem take credit for successes and blame failures on internal causes, and vice versa. academic self esteem influences expectancies for success (high or low). this influences achievement motivation (vigorous and persistent vs inhibited and debilitated), which influences task outcomes
achievement goal orientation theory
what are you focused on when you think about your goals for a task.
orientations for achievement goal
mastery and performance
mastery oriented learning
mastery orientation = 1) focused on the task rather than their ability. (they don't care about it looks good/the outcome is important - they want to understand it.) 2) generate solution-oriented strategies. 3) high need to achieve - want to have knowledge and a better understanding of a concept or task. not competitive/resume oriented. just want to understand it............. see grades as reflection of how well they did on the task
performance oriented learning
concerned more about the outcome than the process of learning. 1) students are concerned with the outcome rather than the process 2) preoccupied with themselves - about competitiveness and not looking bad. care about who got the best grade. 3) need to avoid failure (failure-avoiding)....... set themselves up - make attributions before they engage in the task. have an excuse beforehand. see grades as how good yo uare in comparison to the class.
types of orientations and focuses for achievement goal
mastery/performance orientation with an approach/avoidance focus
goal is to master the task for self-improvement
avoid misunderstanding, don't be wrong, not because i care that others will know, but because i'll feel badly about myself. i can't not understand this. hates getting things wrong on the homework. not about comparing to others - about knowing everything. perfectionist
want to win. want to be the best. might take risks to win.


want to avoid losing or being the worst. ok with being in the middle - don't want to be last or looking stupid. least likely to take risks.
mastery/learning goals
focus on improving skills and learning new ones. choose moderately difficult tasks. students work harder when they encounter problems in obtaining the goal. can increase motivation. problems increase motivation. failure to attain goal is attributed to lack of effort. Thus tend to have an internal unstable attribution - have the most power. Healthiest motivational styles.
performance goals
focus on looking smart, earning praise, and avoiding negative judgements. choose easy or extremely difficult tasks, because if you do it other people are likely to fail too. moderate tasks allow better comparison. either give up easily or show poor performance when given a difficult task. failure to attain goal is attributed to lack of ability; often decreases motivation
failure avoiding
fear failure, unrealistic goals sometimes
failure accepting
expect failure, no goal-setting. learned helplessness
learned helplessness
more common in female adolescents than in male adolescents. feeling of little control over important aspects of life. often correlated with disadvantaged status in society. learned through experience and reactions of other people. more likely in lower SES students.
performance oriented classroom
definition of success = high success and performance compared to others. reasons for effort = high grades, demonstrate ability. basis of satisfaction: doing better than others, success with minimum effort. evaluation criteria: social comparison. interpretation of errors: failure, lack of ability. concept of ability = entity, fixed. curving grades, competition
learning oriented classroom
improvement, progress, mastery, learning something new, progress, challenge mastery, evidence of progress, information, part of the processincremental, improves with effort (reference perf related classrooms for labels)
self fulfilling prophecy
doesn't help if they like you. hurts if hurts you. get around it by noticing it and noticing when things change. is this group successful? SFP works better with low expectations.ASSUMPTIONS (older siblings, teachers' lounge) -> BEHAVIOR (over helping) -> STUDENT'S PERCEPTIONS (always checks up on me. -> STUDENT'S ASSUMPTION - my techer doesn't think I can do anything on my own. must thinks i'm incapable. -> STUDENT'S BEHAVIOR (avoid my teacher entirely or wait to tell me what t odo. -> TEACHER'S CONCLUSION (I WAS RIGHT-> AGAIN
Goal of High-Stakes testing
accountability - have serious consequences for students and/or teachers (grade promotion, grad, teacher bonuses) and affect major educational decisions. Increased since NCLB.
Traditional Tests
paper-pencil tests which students select from choices, calculate numbers, construct short responces and write essays. Two types: selected-response and constructed-response
Types of selected-response items
common ones are multiple choice and true-false
pros and cons of true-false
Pros: 1) item useful if only two possible alternatives 2) less demand is placed on reading ability than multiple-choice 3) relatively large number of items can be answered in a typical testing period 4) scoring is easy, objective and reliable. CONS: 1) difficult to write items at for high level students that don't have ambiguity 2) student provides no reason for why the answer is false if it's false 3) no diagnostic info provided by incorrect answers. 4) scores are most influenced by guessing
pros and cons of short-answer and essay questions
PROS: 1) highest level of learning outcomes (analysis, synthesis, evaluation) can be measured. 2) integration and application of ideas can be emphasized. 3) preparation time is usually less than for selection-type formats. CONS: 1) Hard to sample achievement because of time constraints. 2) Can be hard to relate essay responses to learning outcomes because students have freedom to select, organize and express ideas. 3) Writing skills and bluffing artificially raise scores. Poor handwriting, misspelling and grammatical errors artificially lower scores. 4) Scoring is time-consuming, subjective and potentially unreliable.
norm vs criterion-referenced grading
NORM: 1) based on comparison to classmates - "grading on a curve". Grade determined by a scale 95-100 = A. 85-95 = B. CRITERION: based on comparison with predetermined standards, "absolute grading". based on level of mastery.
Recitation teaching
teacher asks, student delivers.
Pattern for questions
initiation (question), response (student answers), evaluation/reaction (praising, correcting, probing, or expanding). I.R.E.
Purpose of asking questions
help rehearse info for recall. identify gaps in students' knowledge base. provoke curiosity and long-term interest. initiate cognitive conflict and promote disequilibrium.
Convergent Questions
one right answer
Divergent Questions
multiple right answers
Good questions for younger students/lower-ability students
simple questions that allow high % of correct answers, ample encouragement, help when the student doesn't have the correct answer, and praise.
Good questions for higher-ability students
harder questions and more critical feedback
Timing and questions
Asking questions then waiting 3-5 seconds to call on a student to answer allows longer answers, more participation. Application of this strategy should involve writing down answers and discussing them with a partner. Increasing wait time doesn't help as much with university students.
Choosing students to answer questions
volunteers is bad - you misperceive how well students understand the material. Some people are more likely to volunteer. Pick names out of a jar or check names off a list. Put names on index cards, shuffle and take notes on quality of answers or extra help they may need.
Responding to student answers
if they're correct and firm, accept/ask another. if correct but hesitant, say it's correct and explain why. If unsure, explain. If partially/completely wrong, probe/give clues. If the student gives a careless/silly answer correct them and move on.
Feedback questions and purposes
"Where am I going" - about goals and clarity. "How am I going?" - about progress/achievement of goals. "Where to next" - about moving forward to improve understandings when goals are not met yet or to build on attained goals.
Four types of feedback
Task feedback - do more of this. Process feedback - going through this strategy will make things easier. Self-regulation feedback - you already know this. do that instead. Self-feedback - "good job/you're smart". Process/self-regulation is the best. Feedback about self is common but needs to provide information about how effort/work helps.
Group discussion
teacher asks question and group discusses - teacher doesn't have a dominant role.
advantages and disads to group discussions
students are directly involved and can participate. learn to express/warrant arguments. clarification and examining own thinking. CONS: discussions digress. need to prepare with background knowledge. social anxiety. students dominate the discussion. only really help people with low reading comprehension.
Confrontation Strategies
"I" Messages, assertive discipline,
"I" Messages
telling a student in a straight-forward, assertive and nonjudgemental way that what they're oding is wrong. "If you do this, I get hurt. If you call out, I can't concentrate".
Assertive Discipline
Teachers can be wishy-washy and passive or hostile and aggressive. Passive: tell/ask student to try to think about the appropriate action. Hostile: "you" statements - you should be ashamed. Threaten but don't follow through. May be too vague or too severe, making the punishment hard to follow. Assertive = student knows you care enough about them to not let it continue. Don't debate fairness of the rules - expect change not promises or apologies. Discussions about why you should act certain ways help.
Teacher-student conflicts
1 - teacher imposes a solution. necessary in emergency 2 - give in to student. use sparingly unless the student seems right. 3 - "no-lose method"
no-lose method
define the problem - what are the behaviors involved, what does each person want (activevoice = better). 2 - generate many solutions 3 - evaluate each solution - anyone can veto any idea. keep brainstorming. 4 - make a decision. choose a solution through consensus - no voting. 5 - determine how to implement the solution. 6 - evaluate how well the solution is going
conflict resolution strategy
1 - jointly define the conflict 2 - exchange positions and interests 3 - reverse perspectives 4 - invent 3 agreements that allow mutual gain 5 - reach an integrative agreement
Formative Assessment
before or during instruction - guide the teacher in planning and improving instruction to help students imrpove learning. helps FORM instruction. "pretest"
Summative Assessment
at the end of instruction - its purpose is to let the teacher and the students know the level of accomplishment attained. provides summary of accomplishment.
distinction between formative and summative assessment
about how the results are used - any assessment, traditional, performance, oral, project, portfoio can be used. if the purpose of the assessment is improving teaching and helping students learn about their learning, then it's formative. if it's about evaluating achievement, then it's summative.
traditional tests - types
constructed response and selected-response. selected: select from choices. multiple choice, true/false. constructed-response - you have to come up with the response. essay, fill in the blank
good MC questions - student perspectives
easily narrow down to two answers, answer choices are relatively short, questions are not all or nothing,
good MC questions - edu psych theory
questions reflect objectives. double negatives are difficult. stem (question portion) should present a single problem. if you have to distinguish important concepts, the instructor should use caution. limit use of A & B type response options to prevent confusing the issue. Limit categorical words (all, always, never) - then it's about test taking skills not knowing the answers because those options are unlikely. Avoid using the exact wording in the textbook - repeating verbatim isn't very helpful. Include at least one good distracter (students that didn't learn very well will be distracted because it sounds good, but it has to be absolutely wrong, not somewhat wrong). Incorrect response options should reflect common misunderstandings
purpose of MC questions
distinguish between those who know well and those that don't.
pros of MC questions
PROS: easier to grade, assess broad sample of material, objective, quicker feedback to student scores, less influenced by guessing than T/F. Incorrect responses can provide diagnostic information. Can assess both simple and complex learning outcomes.
limitations of MC questiosn
More suceptible to cheating than essay. Not as effective for measuring some types of problem solving or explanatory skills. Takes longer to develop. Students use more recognition than recall. Difficult to construct a good question. If poorly developed, MC questions can encourage rote memorization. Can be influenced by reading ability. Some people are better writers and some are better at multiple choice - distinguishing between distractors and correct answer.
Constructed Response pros/cons
having an opportunity to explain things differently than how the teacher might have explained it. CONS: poor writing skills impact grading, subjective grading
making constructed response less subjective
clear grading rubric, clear prompt (specific), grade anonymously, score all responses to one question at the same time,
traditional assessments vs alt assessments
traditional = do you know something. alternative assessments = can you show/demonstrate something
authentic/alternative assessment
evaluating sutdent's knowledge or skill in a context that approximates the real world or real life as closely as possible. can be a thinking performance - what would you recommend to this teacher? that way you see the application to real life. fairly common in art, music, physical education. internship. baking, balancing a checkbook. (all these are performance-based)
performance-based assessment
evaluated when specific criteria are performed by the student. direct assessment (apply add/subtract to checkbook), realism (teaches value of what you're learning), activities with no "correct" answer, group and individual performance, self-assessment, open-ended tasks involving high-level thinking.
issues for using performance-based assessment
establishing a clear purpose. identifying observable criteria. providing an appropriate setting. judging or scoring the performance.
portfolio assessment definition and 4 types
consists of evaluating a systematic and organized collection of a student's work that demonstrates the student's skills and accomplishments.--- 1) artifacts - students' papers and homework. 2) reproductions - documentation of a student's work outside the classroom. 3) Attestations - teachers' or others' documentation of a student's work. peer evaluation 4) Productions - documents prepared especially for the portfolio
Using portfolios effectively
establishing purpose, involving students in selecting portfolio materials, reviweing with students, setting criteria for evaluations, scoring and judging
purposes of a portfolio
growth portfolio, best-work portfolio. growth = before/after. best-work = best of your work. growth portfolio can include a subsection which is your best-work portfolio.
why do we involve students in selecting portfolio materials
gives them ownership of the portfolio and increases extrinsic motivation to do well
why do we review portfolio with students
review periodically - otherwise it's just a dumpbox. gives you insight as to what you've done and what you still have to do.
advantages of portfolios
students are more engaged in what they're doing. can be used by next teacher to form their own work.
grade inflation is
same student response earns better grade today. material keeps getting dumbed down. research shows this is true in some subject areas. in other areas it's going the opposite way. 2nd grade math today used to be 3rd or 4th grade math.
is grade inflation real
yes - teachers would change scantron scores. bc of NCLB.
1) put > < or = for rows 2) put > < or = for columns 3) is there an interaction? is the simple effect the same for all boxes? 4) write-up the pattern

RH for factorial designs - main effects

involve effect of one IV. tested by comparing marginal means

RH for interactions

expressed as "different differences". tested by comparing simple effects. sometimes the simple effect is stated (row 1 will be =, row 2 will be >)
he'll have us draw factorial design boxes on the exam
IV's go on row/column.
two 2X2 IV's
within-group and between-group, or mixed design where some are between and some are within
between-group factorial design
both of IV's between group. each completes only one condition
within-group factorial design
each participant completes all condition
mixed-group factorial design
one IV is between-group, the other one is within-group (so each participant participates in 2 of the 4 conditions)
F int
determines if there's an interaction somewhere
minimum difference comparing boxes.