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30 Cards in this Set

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for statement
A for statement, or for loop, can be used to code definite loops. It contains a loop control variable that is automatically initializes, evaluates and alters.
step value
A step value is a number you use to increase a loop control variable on each pass through a loop
pretest loop
A pretest loop tests its loop control variable before each iteration, meaning that the loop body might never execute
posttest loop
A posttest loop tests its loop control variable after each iteration, meaning that the loop body executes at least one time
accumulator
An accumulator is a variable that you use to gather or accumulate values
summary report
A summary report list only totals, without individual detail records
Defensive programming
Defensive programming is a technique with which you try to prepare for all possible errors before they occure
validate data
To validate data is to ensure that data items are meaningful and useful. For examples, you ensure that values are the correct data type or that they fall within acceptable range
GIGO
Garbage in Garbage Out

means that if your input is correct, your output is worthless
Forcing
Forcing a data item means you override incorrect data by setting it to s specific value.
1. The structure that allows you to write one set of instructions that operate on multiple, separate sets of data is the __________.
a. Sequence
b. Selection
c. Loop
d. Case
c. Loop
2. The loop that frequently appears in a program’s mainline logic __________.
a. Always depends on whether a variable equals 0
b. Works correctly based on the same logic as other loops
c. Is an unstructured loop
d. Is an example of an infinite loop
b. Works correctly based on the same logic as other loops
3. Which of the following is not a step that must occur with every correctly working loop?
a. Initialize a loop control variable
b. Set the loop control variable equal to a sentinel during each iteration
c. Compare the loop control value to a sentinel during each iteration
d. Alter the loop control variable during each iteration
b. Set the loop control variable equal to a sentinel during each iteration
4. The statements executed within a loop are known collectively as the ________.
a. Loop body
b. Loop controls
c. Sequences
d. Sentinels
a. Loop body
5. A counter keeps track of _________.
a. The number of times an event has occurred
b. The number of machine cycles required by a segment of a program
c. The number of loop structures within a program
d. The number of times software has been revised
a. The number of times an event has occurred
6. Adding 1 to a variable is also called _______________ it.
a. Digesting
b. Resetting
c. Decrementing
d. Incriminating
d. Incriminating
7. Which of the following is a definite loop?
a. A loop executes as long as a user continues to enter valid data
b. A loop executes 1000 times
c. Both of the above
d. None of the above
b. A loop executes 1000 times
8. Which of the following is an indefinite loop?
a. A loop executes exactly 10 times
b. A loop that follows a prompt that asks a user how many repetitions to make and uses the value to control the loop
c. Both of the above
d. None of the above
b. A loop that follows a prompt that asks a user how many repetitions to make and uses the value to control the loop
9. When you decrement a variable, you _________
a. Set it to 0
b. Reduce it by one-tenth
c. Subtract a value from it
d. Remove it from a program
c. Subtract a value from it
10. When the two loops are nested, the loop that is contained by the other is the _____ loop
a. Captive
b. Unstructured
c. Inner
d. Outer
c. Inner
11. When loops are nested, _______________________
a. They typically share a loop control variable
b. One must end before the other begins
c. Both must be the same type-definite or indefinite
d. None of the above
d. None of the above
12. Most programmers use a for loop _____
a. For every loop they write
b. When a loop will not repeat
c. When a loop must repeat many times
d. When they know the exact number of times the loop will repeat
d. When they know the exact number of times the loop will repeat
13. A report that lists only totals, with no details about individual records is a(n) ___________ report
a. Accumulator
b. Final
c. Summary
d. Detailless
c. Summary
14. Typically, the value added to a counter variable is ______________
a. 0
b. 1
c. 10
d. Different in each iteration
b. 1
15. Typically, the value added to an accumulator variable is ______________
a. 0
b. 1
c. The same for each iteration
d. Different in each iteration
d. Different in each iteration
16. After an accumulator or counter variable is displayed at the end of a program, it is best to ____
a. Delete the variable form the program
b. Reset the variable to 0
c. Subtract one from the variable
d. None of the above
d. None of the above
17. When you _______, you make sure data items are the correct type and fall within the correct range.
a. Validate data
b. Employ offensive programming
c. Use object orientation
d. Count loop iterations
a. Validate data
18. Overriding a user’s entered value by setting it to a predetermined value is known as ____________
a. Forcing
b. Accumulation
c. Validating
d. Pushing
a. Forcing
19. To ensure that a user’s entry is the correct data type, frequently you ______________
a. Prompt the user to verify that the type is correct
b. Use a method built into the programming language
c. Include a statement at the beginning of the program that lists the data types allowed
d. All of the above
b. Use a method built into the programming language
20. A variable might hold an incorrect value even when it is __________
a. The correct data type
b. Within a required range
c. A constant coded by the programmer
d. All of the above
d. All of the above