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57 Cards in this Set

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What are the two types of biomass that can be measured?

Above ground (trunk and leaves) and below ground (roots)

What is the basis of photosynthesis?

carbon dioxide + water + sunlight ---> sugars and Oxygen

What is GPP as it relates to the light-dark bottle experiments

GPP= Photo + Resp

What is the equation for NPP

NPP= GPP- Resp

What is the light dark-bottle experiments?

Carbon Dioxide sensor with a leaf in sealed chamber and a light source that is sometimes off and sometimes on

What does ambient CO2 monitor?

CO2 in forest

What would one release when measuring the CO2 in the forest?

C14, radioactive carbon

What is the purpose of measuring CO2?

Measuring primary productivity

Is measuring CO2 in aquatic environments useful? Why or Why not?

Not particularly because ti does not provide a good estimate of NPP because CO2 is rapidly converted into bicarbonate ions

How is productivity across large spatial scales measured?

Using remote sensing

Suppose that you’re measuring the primary productivity of an aquatic plant. When transferring the plant to your test chamber, you have accidentally moved some plankton along with the plant. You perform the day/night measurements to determine NPP and respiration rate of the plant. Which kind of plankton in the chamber will most skew your results?

Phytoplankton, Respiring + Photo/ Respiring

Consumed energy that is excreted or regurgitated

Egested energy

Energy consumers digest and absorb

Assimilated energy

Assimilated energy a consumer uses for respiration

Respired energy

Rate of consumer biomass accumulation in a given area

Net secondary productivity

NSP equation

NPP eaten- egested - respired = NSP

Net secondary production is analogous to what?

NPP

Picture of secondary production

What does a roughly linear graph of secondary productivity vs. net primary productivity mean?

Constant fraction of NPP makes it to NSP

What are the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the highest net primary productivity

Tropical rainforests and tropical seasonal forests and then swamps and marshes and coral reefs

More primary productivity means____seaonsal precipitation

more

In general, NPP is positively correlated with what?

Annual temperature

Which statement below best explains the correlation between temperature and NPP?

Higher temperatures are due to more intense solar radiation

What is the relationship between NPP and mean annual precipitation?

Mean annual precipitation is positively related with NPP until 3 m of annual precipitation i reached

Graph of mean annual precipiration and NPP

Why does high precipitation decrease NPP?

late decrease because more precipitation washes out the nutrients

What are the units of NPP?

mg C / hectare/ year)

What two nutrients can strongly affect NPP in terrestrial ecosystems?

Nitrogen and Phosphorus

Nitrogen and Phosphorus and NPP graph

What are aquatic ecosystems limited by?

Light in addition to temperature, precipitation, and nutrients

When aquatic ecosystems have similar temperature and light levels, NPP is largely limited by what?

Nutrients

Do Ocean biome have high or low NPP?

low

In the ocean, NPP has a lot to do with what?

Oxygen

What can limit the NPP of aquatic ecosystems?

Both nitrogen and Phosphorus

Of the control and just carbon nitrogen and then C, N, and P, which has the highest mass of phytopplankton

Carbon, nitrogen, and Phosphorus

Agricultural runoff has ___ N, P

High

What is an algal bloom?

algae die, decompose, O2 used up and hten less O2 for fish causing them to die

What two elements, besides N and P, can limit productivity in the ocean?

Si and iron

What is silicon used for?

To build exoskeletons

When iron is low in the water, what do microbes produce?

Compounds called siderophades

What does an increase in iron cause in the water?

Increase in iron--> algae photoplankton--> death-->decompose--> Carbon dioxide

a chart composed of stacked rectangles representing the amount of energy (ie pyramid of energy) or biomass (pyramid of biomass) in each trophic group

Trophic pyramid

Why are so many things producers?

Due to inefficiency of assimilation from one level to the next

Percent of Producers, Primary and secondary consumers in aquatic

Producers- 86.1, primary consumers 11.5 %, secondary consumers 2.4%

What are the terrestrial ecosystems producers?

Trees, bushes

Aquatic ecosystems have rapid consumption. What does this do?

Flips biomass pyramid and phytoplanktons are consumed rapidly

The percentage of energy or biomass in a trophic level that is consumed by the next higher trophic level

Consumption efficiency

What is the consumption efficiency units?

Consumed (J)/ net energy at next lower level

Primary consumers consumption efficiency units

Consumed (J)/ Net primary production

The percentage of consumed energy that is assimilated (ie Material that is not egested such as bones)

Assimilation efficiency

The percentage of assimilated energy that is used for growth and reproduction; the percentage of assimilated energy that remains after respiration

Net Production efficiency

What is an important fraction when looking at efficiency?

Assimilated energy/ consumed energy

What is an important fraction that can be as low as 1% in some homeotherms and as high as 98% in some sedentary poliotherms

Net production (J)/ assimilated energy

What does the fraction net production (J)/ assimilated energy mean?

Energy converted into new body mass

The percentage of net production from one trophic level compared to the next lower trophic level

Ecological efficiency (food chain efficiency)

What is the equation for ecological efficiency?

Net production of one level/ Net production at lower level

Ecological efficiency is between what and what?

5-20%, rule of thumb ususally 10%