Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/81

Click to flip

81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

How is Clostridium perfringens transmitted?

Contamination of an open wound

What is the causative agent of malaria?

Plasmodium sp.

Hemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola, Lassa fever, and Marburg, are caused by what kind of pathogen?

Virus

Alpha-hemolytic streptococci, enterococci or Staphylococcus aureus can cause infectious endocarditis. What kind of infectious agent are they?

Bacteria

Rocky mountain spotted fever is treated using which antibiotics?

doxycycline...

Which antimicrobial therapy is used to treat malaria?

Chloroquine, quinidine, or quinine with doxycycline or clindamycin.

What is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis?

epstein-barr virus

Hepatitis C is caused by what kind of pathogen?

virus

How can you prevent hepatitis C infection?

do not inject drugs

Complete the limerick!A tourist bought a drum made of leatherThe sound of its beat gave him pleasureThough it helped him relaxIt spread spores of anthraxNow his skin has a black centered __________.

eschar

Plague is caused by what type of microorganism?

bacterium

Malaria is spread by which mode of transmission?

the bite of an infected mosquito

Aggressive debridement of dead tissue and administration of clindamycin, cephalosporins, or penicillin are initial therapies for this disease. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is also used. What disease is treated in these ways?

gas gangrene

Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of which disease?

Lyme Disease

Alpha-hemolytic streptococci are the cause of which disease?

Infectious Endocarditis

By what way is staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome transmitted?

endogenous bacteria

How can malaria be prevented?

protective clothing...

What microbe causes plague?

Yersinia pestis

The formation of a pustule that over time ulcerates to form a swollen, black-centered scab, called an eschar; swollen lymph nodes near the eschar may be swollen. In extreme cases, bacteremia and hemorrhaging may lead to shock and death. What disease is this?

anthrax

Acute or gradual development of fever, chills, heart murmur, fatigue, myalgia, arthralgia, shortness of breath, coughing, edema of the feet, legs, or abdomen are the signs and symptoms of which disease?

Infectious Endocarditis

Which of the following is an appropriate strategy to prevent the plague?

control of rodents...

Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of which disease?

anthrax

The causative agent of gangrene is which of the following?

clostridium perfingens

Elimination of hard ticks and use of insect repellants are important tools in preventing which disease?

Rocky mountain spotted fever

How is the cytomegalovirus transmitted?

direct (sexual) contact, in milk...

What therapies are used to treat cytomegalovirus infection?

this disease can be best treated and prevented with the antiviral drugs, ganciclovir and valgancilovir

What is the main way by which anthrax is transmitted?

Through cuts and scrapes in the skin

Which disease is a sequela of a strep infection?

Rheumatic Fever

How does someone get infectious endocarditis?

endogenous spread from a wound (generally in the mouth)

Prevention of cytomegalovirus infection is achieved by which of the following strategies?

personal hygiene...

Plague is treated with which antibiotic regimen?

Streptomycin or gentamicin are used; however doxycycline and ciprofloxacin are appropriate alternatives.

How is Hepatitis C transmitted?

contact with blood of an infected person...

The antibiotics used to treat anthrax include which of the following?

Ciprofloxacin,doxycycline,penicillin

Bubonic plague is transmitted in which manner?

bite of infected rat flea

How might Lyme disease be prevented?

wear long-sleeved shirts...

The causative agent of rheumatic fever is _________________.

Streptococcus pyogenes

In which season of the year are you most likely to get Lyme disease?

Summer

What kind of organism is Plasmodium?

Protist

Rocky mountain spotted fever is caused by which agent?

Rickettsia rickettsii

What kind of pathogen is Rickettsia rickettsii?

bacterium

Infectious mononucleosis may best be prevented in what ways?

infected individuals should prevent spreading the virus by avoiding kissing them...

How is Rocky mountain spotted fever transmitted?

hard ticks...

What signs and symptoms may be seen in a cytomegalovirus infection?

fever...death

Bacillus anthracis is what type of agent?

bacterium

How is pneumonic plague transmitted?

inhalation of contaminated respiratory droplets

Infectious mononucleosis is caused by what kind of pathogen?

Virus

Malaise, muscle aches, and an annular rash (erythema migrans) which may be followed by headache, stiff neck, joint pain, fatigue, and swollen nymph nodes. A late persistent infection causes long-lasting neurological symptoms, such as Bell’s palsy, and cardiac irregularities may also be observed. What disease develops these symptoms?

Lyme Disease

Which of the following diseases is transmitted by the bite of an infected hard tick, such as Ixodes scapularis?

Lyme Disease

Hemorrhagic fevers are treated in what ways?

Only supportive treatment may be offered in the case of the viral hemorrhagic fevers. Ribavirin, a nucleotide analog antiviral agent, has found use in treating some of them.

Lyme disease is treated with which antibiotics?

Doxycycline in adults and amoxicillin in children.

How can staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome be prevented?

appropriate use of tampons...

What kind of agent causes CMV infection?

virus

What therapies are used to treat cytomegalovirus infection?

This disease can best be treated and prevented with the antiviral drugs, ganciclovir and valganciclovir.

What are the symptoms of gas gangrene?

The skin at the site of infection turns black or blue on the surface, and red or purple ; the wound is intensely painful and there is a foul-smelling discharge from the wound. If there is gas produced in the tissues beneath the wound, there is marked swelling. Eventually there is loss of feeling and hypotension.

Fever with painful and inflamed joints, chest pain, heart palpitations, fatigue, and shortness of breath are symptoms of this disease. Sometimes Sydenham chorea—jerky movements of the head, hands, and feet—and a raised, painless, rash called erythema marginatum may also be observed. Which disease has these signs and symptoms?

Rheumatic Fever

Which disease includes retinal, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and encephalitic infection?

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

Fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, gray-colored bowel movements, joint pain, jaundice are the signs and symptoms of which disease?

Hepatitis C

How can infectious mononucleosis be treated?

The symptoms are self-limiting. Because the tonsils enlarge, care must be taken to maintain a patient’s airway.

Complete the limerick!Beware of a passionate kissEven though you may think it is blissYou can get EBV Swollen glands and fatigueOf infectious ___________________.

Mononucleosis

How can we best prevent acquiring a viral hemorrhagic infection?

-Control in the hospital environment requires standard precautions including latex/vinyl gloves, face protection, and other protective clothing.


-Avoid being bitten by mosquitoes infected by the virus by using nets when sleeping, and use of insect repellants.

Prophylactic use of antibiotics to prevent infection during invasive dental or surgical procedures is often used to prevent which disease?

Infectious Endocarditis

Which of the following diseases is a zoonosis?

Plague

What are the symptoms of pneumonic plague?

Blood-tainted, mucoid, sputum, dyspnea, cyanosis, and death.

Shaking chills, fever, and convulsions accompany this disease. Anemia is another frequent problem—especially in infants and small children. Other symptoms include myalgia, nausea, sweating and vomiting. Which disease do these signs and symptoms describe?

malaria

Rheumatic fever is caused by which type of agent?

Bacterium

Infectious endocarditis is generally treated with which antibiotic?

Penicillin

What type of organism causes gas gangrene?

Bacterium

Which of the following diseases can be prevented by prompt and proper treatment of strep infections, such as streptococcal pharyngitis and/or scarlet fever?

Rheumatic fever

Which of the following best describe the signs and symptoms of infectious mononucleosis?

Fever (101oF to 104oF), chills, sore throat, swollen cervical lymph nodes, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, and an enlarged spleen.

Anthrax may be prevented in which way?

vaccination

Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome is caused by which organism?

Staphylococcus aureus

Penicillin is often the antibiotic of choice, but erythromycin can be used to treat this disease. What is it?

Rheumatic fever

Headache, confusion, and diarrhea followed by a high fever, low blood pressure, nausea, vomiting, kidney and liver failure are signs and symptoms typical of this disease. Additionally a sunburn-like rash can also develop and the skin can desquamate after a week or two. Which disease does this describe?

Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

The symptoms of the hemorrhagic fevers often includes which of the following?

Fever, hepatosplenomegaly, mental and/or developmental retardation, and death.


-------NOT


Fever (101oF to 104oF), chills, sore throat, swollen cervical lymph nodes, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, and an enlarged spleen. NO---

What are the principle signs and symptoms of rocky mountain spotted fever?

Fever and swollen lymph nodes—particularly cervical (neck), axilla (armpit), and inguinal (groin) lymph nodes.


NO-----------------

Fever and swollen lymph nodes—particularly cervical (neck), axilla (armpit), and inguinal (groin) lymph nodes. Other symptoms include chills, fever (>102oF or 39oC), malaise, and muscle cramps. What disease do these signs and symptoms indicate?

Rheumatic fever NOT!!!!!!!!


Rocky mountain spotted fever NO---------

Complete the limerick!In the past was a disease quite demonicThe stories are quite histrionicWhen diagnosing the plagueThe symptoms are not vagueIt’s either bubonic or _____________

pneumonic

Shaking chills, fever, and convulsions accompany this disease. Anemia is another frequent problem—especially in infants and small children. Other symptoms include myalgia, nausea, sweating and vomiting. Which disease do these signs and symptoms describe?

Malaria

Lyme disease is caused by what kind of microorganism?

Bacterium

How is infectious mononucleosis spread?

Transmission to the eyes and mouth with infected saliva, mucus, or tears.

In which way are hemorrhagic fevers transmitted?

-The bite of an infected mosquito.


-Direct contact with the eyes or mouth with infected saliva, mucus, or tears.


-Direct contact with infected urine, blood, saliva, feces, or other body secretions of infected animal reservoirs.