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454 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
46) Coal and oil deposits form from terrestrial and oceanic organic carbon deposits
What type of sedimentary environment produces the most dinosaur remains
a fluvial environment
Which of the following is false about oceanic ridges such as the Mid-Atlantic ridge
they have the thickest accumulation of oceanic sediment
Permineralized or petrified wood is most common in sediments also containing
volcanic ash
in a succession of strata, fossil species succeed one another in a definite and recognizable order
The original continuity of strata in a basin can be broken. A river can carve a canyon into a basin leaving once continuous layers stranded on opposite sides of the canayon. According to the principle of lateral continuity, these opposite sides of the valley were once laterally continuous
) In a succession of strata, fossil species succeed one another in a definite and recognizable order. The appearance and disappearances is largely the consequence of:
all of these
refers to the number of protons of an atom
atomic number
) Particles that settle under the influence of gravity settle to more nearly vertical layers
) The relative geologic time scale was not established until the 20th century when the geologic periods were first defined as specific interval of time
This type of unconformity separates horizontal sedimentary rocks above and below the unconformity
Radioactive decay is the spontaneous nuclear disintegration of isotopes at constant rates.
Calcite, the major constituent of limestone, is soluble in acidic water
Oxidation refers to reactions with _____ that forms oxides.
Most rocks exhibit systems of joints which run perpendicular to bedding planes or the surface
) Oxidation of iron in soils and rocks causes an increase in reddish color
Peat is brownish, soft, spongy and is composed almost entirely of recognizable plant remains. Burial of peat decreases its water content and gradually changes it to coal.
The degree of sorting reflects: the degree of mechanical and chemical weathering producing the sediment, the transportation processes, and post-depositional processes that may alter the sediment grain-size distribution
) Conglomerates and breccias are distinguished from each other on the basis of how rounded or angular their coarse fragments are
_____ is a detrital sedimentary rock composed of grains ranging between 1/16 and 1/256 mm.
is an important process in lithification causing a reduction in the pore space between unconsolidated grains in the sediment.
The two principal types of sedimentary rocks are called
detrial and chemical
are sedimentary rocks formed of minerals that were precipited from solution with evaporation of the liquid they were dissolved in.
The most commonly used grain size scale in use is the ______ that divides particle size (clay, silt, sand, gravel) by a specific size range in millimeters (clay is less than 1/256 mm.)
Wentworth Scale
Microscopic fossils of algal plants and protozoans can be used to estimate such parameters as: sea surface temperature, water depth, salinity, water clarity, etc.
Sediments accumulating in an aquatic environment, low in oxygen content, are usually
dark gray or black
When particles in a sedimentary bed change from coarse at the bottom to fine at the top, bedding is defined as
Hematite can produce sediment shades of yellow and brown
An internal mold is an impression of the outside of the shell or fossil showing only the external detail of the fossil.
An impression of the exterior of a shell or bone is a _
external mold
are the most common fossils in amber
)___ are stomach stones swallowed by animals to aid in digestion
The most common fossils preserved in peat are
) Peat forms in ¬_____ deprived and acidic waters
The fossilization process by which porous spaces in the shell, wood, or bone are filled with minerals is called
Most marine invertebrates have hard parts of skeletons make of calcite or ____ (a less stable form of calcite).
During recrystallization, the external form is unchanged but internal microstructures are obscured or destroyed
If a shell of an invertebrate is filled with sediment and the shell later dissolved, the sediment filling the shell can produce a
internal mold
are tracks, trails, and burrows of organisms that live on the surface (epifaunal) or beneath the sediment surface (infaunal).
trace fossils
Some marine and fresh water sponges secrete ___.
Siliceous spicules
The frequent reveals of the magnetic field have left an alternating signature of normal and reversed polarity crust on the ridge flanks as they spread away from the ridge crest
are minerals the form from the evaporation of water, generally seawater
were carnivorous mammal-like reptiles that first appeared in the Late Permian
Is the study of the earth’s magnetic history
to the seafloor spreading hypothesis, ocean ridges are sights of new seafloor creation with magma upwelling from mantle thermal convection cells
The oldest marine sediments in the Atlantic occur along the margins of the basins while the youngest are on the Mid Atlantic ridge
The location of _______ is marked by linear distributions of shallow earthquakes.-
transform faults
_______ is viewed as the developer of the theory of continental drift
A ________ boundary is the zone along which plates slide past one another and crust is neither produced nor destroyed.-
transform fault plane
A___________ is on the trailing edge of a continental plate and away from plate margins
passive continental margins
During the Late Cretaceous, South America was still connected to Antarctica as a large island continent
By the end of the Triassic Period, Pangaea began to rift apart in some places but largely remained intact until the ___________ Period
During the Early Jurassic, Europe separated from Greenland
When dinosaurs evolved, Pangaea was still intact
______ was comprised of South America, Africa, Madagascar, India, Australia, and Antarctica.
Which of the following is a common cementing material in sedimentary rock? (
(calcite, iron oxide, and silica)
The principle which states the “disturbed rocks or strata are older than those rocks that cut or disturb them “is the principle of
cross cutting principle
The basic rock until defined on the basis of distinctive and easily recognized characteristics is a
is the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
atomic mass
Radiometric age dating techniques were used to establish the relative geologic time scale
Which of the following is the oldest?
Lower Cretaceous
) Disturbed rocks or strata are older than those rocks that disturb them or cut through them
_________ is a product of placing rocks in their proper sequence of formation to create a composite record of geologic events.
relative geological time scale
Radiometric age dating, the basis of the establishment of the absolute geologic time scale , was not possible until after the discovery of radioactivity in the 20th century
The principle which states that “strata extend in all directions until they thin against edges of the basins they accumulated in “is the principle of
original lateral continuity
Which of the following is not a period in the Mesozoic Era?
Radioactive decay is the spontaneous nuclear disintegration of isotopes at constant rates
History is a sequence of events placed in proper chronological order
An isotope is a species of the same element with the same mass and different atomic number.
Mummification or dessication might occur in an arid environment by the burial of an animal in hot sand shortly after death.
The principle that states that “in any undisturbed succession of strata, the oldest strata are at the bottom with successively younger ones above “is known as the:
principle of superposition
are failed rifts.
Fossil dinosaur bones and most fossil wood has been preserved by this process
The eastern boundary of the North American Plate is
mid-atlantic ridge
Which of the following can not be dated using the carbon-14 age-dating technique
This feature is where the North American Plate is sliding laterally past the Pacific Plate (transform plate boundary)
San Andreas Fault
The short half-life of carbon-14 limits the use of this technique to generally dating materials less than 50,000 to 60,000 years old.
Which of the following would you be least likely to find in amber
a fish
Fossils are preserved in sedimentary rocks
The dinosaurs evolved during the_______ Period.
Late Triassic
Sediments rich in iron and weathered in tropical and subtropical environments tend to produce sedimentary rocks with what dominant color:
Hydrolysis is the major agent of weathering in cool climates
Castle San Marcos in St. Augustine is constructed from this sedimentary rock which is comprised of poorly cemented shells of near shore marine animals
Leaf characteristics of fossilized plants are very indicative of temperature range, rainfall amounts, and climate zones
By the _______ a narrow central Atlantic Ocean formed, separating Africa from eastern North America.
late jurassic
Chemical weathering produces clay minerals, various ions in solutions, and soluble compounds
_______ weathering processes are those physical processes that cause rock to break or disintegrate into smaller and smaller fragments.
Continental landmasses merged into this single large landmass prior to the evolution of dinosaurs:
Which of the following is not a detrital sedimentary rock:
The discovery of these features from the ocean basins was the key to the seafloor spreading hypothesis and unlocking the secrets of plate tectonics:
magnetic anomalies
A horizon between rocks or sediments with distinctly different ages is called a
During the Mesozoic, North America was near the equator
The chemical weathering process of solution is a dominant weathering process where surface rocks are composed of
Graded bedding is characterized by
upward decrease in grain size
The Australian plate still moves northward today. This northward motion is being accommodated by subduction under _______, causing the mountainous terrain, high seismicity, and volcanism
Most fossil mineral replacement takes place above the water table:
____ is a soft chemical sedimentary rock composed almost entirely of the calcium carbonate skeletons of microscopic marine phytoplankton (coccolithophores)
A sediment comprised mostly of clay would be changed into what kind of sedimentary rock through compaction and lithification
mudstone or shale
During which of these geologic periods was the Atlantic at its widest
Earthquakes and volcanoes are more common around the Pacific than the Atlantic because of the subduction of lithosphere into trenches
Which of the following is not a type of unconformity?
the three geologic periods of the Mesozoic Era are (from oldest to youngest):
triassic, jurassic, cretaceous
Limonite or goethite lends a red or pink color to rock
Iron can cause green, purple, and black color in rocks
Although insects are some 75 percent of all living species, they are far fewer than 1 percent of described fossil species
Fossils made of pyrite (fools gold) have been preserved by
Which of the following is not a former portion of Gondwana landmass:
This sedimentary rock forms from the evaporation of sea water
Clay and quartz are common products of long-term chemical weathering
The concentration of nitrogen ions in a solution determines the acidity so the greater the concentration of nitrogen ions the greater the acidity
Water expands by 25% when it freezes.
Which of the following is not a cause of mechanical weathering
Oxidation (rock expansion litostatic pressure changes and abrasion is)
slabs of rock slip, slide, or break off large rock masses along concentric joints in a process called
Solution is a major chemical weathering process in regions with large exposures of surficial limestones.
is the reaction between hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions of water and a mineral’s ions.
The processes by which rocks and minerals at the surface of the Earth are broken down into smaller rocks and eventually into soils is collectively referred to as the processes of
Running water, wind, and glaciers transport weathered products elsewhere, where they are deposited to form sediments and later become _____ as sedimentary rocks.
Mechanical weathering dominates over chemical weathering in warm climates
Acids produced by decaying plant material and the organisms feeding on it help dissolve cements and rocks
Joints are always pathways for mechanical and chemical weathering and over time can even determine the location of river and drainage systems
Weathering and erosion produce sediments that later form sedimentary rocks
Claystones do not exhibit fissility but break into blocky masses
Shale differs from mudstone by breaking into smaller pieces along bedding planes. This breakage characteristic is called
_______sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation of minerals and rock fragments eroded from pre-existing rocks (metamorphic, sedimentary, or igneous) or their weathered by-products.
Lithostatic pressure is the pressure resulting from the weight of the overlying rocks
Which of the following is a poorly-sorted detrital sedimentary rock?
a congolomerate
Most chemical sedimentary rocks form from precipitation from solution in fresh water (lakes, rivers, caves, springs) or in the sea
______sedimentary rocks form from the organic or inorganic precipitation of minerals from an aqueous solution or the accumulation of organic matter.
Dolomite differs from limestone in that some of the calcium has been replaced by magnesium changing it to magnesium carbonate CaMg (CO3)2
A ______ limestone is composed to a large extent by the skeletal remains of invertebrate fossils (corals, sponges, bryozoans, pelecypods, echinoida, etc.)
is a biochemical sedimentary rock composed of combustible material derived from the partial decomposition of plants.
Sediments are converted to sedimentary rocks and account for 75% of exposed rocks on the Earth’s surface.
Chert has a concoidal fracture pattern, making it easy to work into tools and projectiles (arrowheads, scrapers, etc.)
Sedimentary rocks have two types of texture: clastic (or detrital) and non-clastic (crystalline
The process of binding the grains together is _______ where minerals are precipitated in the pore spaces.
Some sedimentary rocks begins as the weathered products of existing rocks
A conglomerate is composted predominantly of rounded to subrounded clasts, a significant proportion being gravel size
Sorting refers to the range of particle density in a clastic sediment or sedimentary rock
The sphericity of a particle is the degree to which the shape of the particle approaches the form of a sphere
is a detrital sedimentary rock formed by cementation of individual grains ranging in size from 1/16 to 2 mm
The White Cliffs of Dover are composed of this type of sedimentary rock made up of the calcium carbonate skeletal remains of microscopic marine algae
_____is the most common chemical sedimentary rock.
Unconsolidated sediments (mud) are turned into sedimentary rocks (shale) by a process called
____are finely-bedded sedimentary rocks (usually claystone to siltstones) often alternating between carbon-rich and carbon-poor beds.
Marine vertebrate fossils in Mesozoic sedimentary rocks include turtles, fish, mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, icthyosaurs. All were nektonic (free swimming) and had global distribution
a _____ refers to the accumulation of deposits that exhibits specific characteristics, reflecting a specific environment, and grading into other sedimentary accumulation formed at the same time but with different characteristics.
A Sediemtary facis
Sedimentary rocks rich in volcanic ash tend to have light greenish to blueish-green hues
) Deltas are large bodies of sediment deposited where streams of rivers empty into lakes or the sea.
Distrubed beds are usually mixed or contorted in some manner. They indicate proximity to unstable sediment sources or disturbances by earthquakes and volcanoes
Dinosaur remains are commonly found in eolian-derived sedimentary rock
Invertebrate fossils are less common from the marine realm than from the terrestrial environments
The colors of sedimentary rocks are reflections of the climate and environments they form in and the composition of the sediments within them
Spores and pollen can be found in the fossil excrement of dinosaurs (called coprolites
_____sediments are usually fine-grained and converted into shales and siltstones, sandstones, and coal.
Current ripples are asymmetrical
____are essentially little waves of sand that develop on a depositional surface
ripple marks
_____occur on the base of beds (usually siltstone of sandstone) and represent a filling of a groove, track, or depression of the underling bed.
sole marks
______are sub-polygonal shrinkage cracks produced by the drying of clay-rich sediment.
mud cracks
Correlations of ancient or fossil tracks, trails, and burrows with those in modern environments have allowed scientists to use these trace fossils to interpret such ancient environmental factors as diverse as water and sediment oxygen levels.
____describes beds at an inclination to the horizontal.
cross bedding
_____occur where there is an even back-and-forth motion of water or air, as offshore just outside the surf zone.
oscillation ripples
_____is a clay formed by the alteration of volcanic ash.
_____ is a viscous hydrocarbon that escapes through fractures or faults from underground hydrocarbon sources.
76) Hillsides are good for fossil collecting, particularly where there is erosion
77) Silica replacement of marine fossils is relatively uncommon
78) Leaves, crustaceans, fish, and insects are often carbonized.
79) Common microfossils made of silica are ___.
Diatoms and radiolarians
80) A fossil is any evidence, direct or indirect, of the existence of organisms in prehistoric time.
81) _____ are the fossilized solid excretory products of animals.
82) Ice age mammoths and rhinoceroses found frozen in Siberia are not considered fossils.
83) If a leaf falls into wet concrete and leaves an impression, this impression would be an example of a ___.
External Mold
84) Permineralization makes fossil bone denser than living bone.
85) Each of the following are factors that inhibit preservation except _____.
87) In the process of replacement the original microstructure is usually destroyed
88) An external mold is formed by dissolution of the shell of the former interior and shell area with sediment or minerals
89) Most ____ is the hardened resin of conifer trees
90) Each of the following are factors that enhance preservation except ___.
High acid content
91) Pyritization is the process where the original material of the skeleton or sometimes soft tissue becomes replaced or coated with pyrite during fossilization.
92) Most dinosaur bones are carbonized.
93) Vertebrate fossils are never found in peat
94) Dinosaur footprints are not considered fossils
96) Teeth are commonly made of ____ and are often preserved in their unaltered mineralogy
calcium phosphate
97) Pleistocene vertebrates have been recovered from the tar pit at this site
Rancho la brea of Los Angeles
98) ____ is the process of removal of the original skeletal material and simultaneous atom-by-atom secondary replacement of another mineral.
99) ___ is the process by which the soft tissue is preserved as a carbon film by volatilization of the hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
100) Oceanic crustal ages are the youngest near ridges and progressively older away from them
101) Trenches are zones of high heat flow—
102) Major zones of earthquakes occur near trenches where a zone of dipping shallow, intermediate and deep earthquakes defines a ______ of seismicity
Benioff Zone
103) Zones of Oceanic crust with normal polarity produce positive magnetic anomalies and zones with reverse polarity produce negative anomalies-
104) Fracture zones on the sea floor are parallel to the direction of plate motion
105) Deep sea trenches are long narrow and deep bathymetric depression associated with volcanic arcs that together mark a collisional zone where one _____ plate is subducted under another
106) Modern reefs are generally restricted between 30 degrees north and south latitudes in water warmer than 70 degrees
107) When magma cools to form a volcanic rock, it aquires the magnetic signature of the current magnetic field of today. The magnetic field of today has _______ polarity
108) A _______ is a boundary between two plates that are moving toward one another-
convergent plate boundary
109) J. Tuzo Wilson hypothesized that the Pacific Plate was moving over a stationary______ in the mantle where there was a localized source of heat energy. (thermal or mantle plume)-
hot spot
110) Ice sheets deposit unique deposits of unsorted rocks called_______
glacial till
111) Zones of similar geologic history and age occur on opposite margins of the Atlantic in conjugate positions
112) Oceanic ______ are the deepest regions of the oceanic basins
113) Positive magnetic anormalies are placed where the magnetic field intensity is lowest-
115) ______ was a synapsid plant-eater and is found in Permian rocks in Africa, Madagascar, India, and Antarctica
116) Sediment thickness decreases away from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and reaches minimum thickness along the adjacent continental margins.-
117) When lithosphere with oceanic crust meets lithosphere with continental crust, a trench forms and the denser oceanic lithosphere is subducted
118) ________ was a small fresh water reptile from the early Permian of coastal Brazil and West Africa.
119) The ________ is the ridged outer layer from the earth’s surface down to the Asthenosphere
120) Dead coral reefs on guyots (flat-top volcanic seamounts believed to be wave-cut) occur well below present sea level
121) The greatest global concentration of volcanoes is around the rim of the Pacific where there concentration is referred to as the _________.
Ring of Fire
122) Heat-driven convection in the asthenosphere, or the entire mantle, is a fundamental cause of plate motion
123) The concept of___________ was introduced to account for the origin and pattern of magnetic anomalies
Seafloor Spreading
124) The direction of plate motion is parallel to the ridge crest generating the plate.-
125) A___________ is where new crust is created as plates move apart
Divergent Plate Boundary
126) After the disappearance of the late Paleozoic ice sheets in the southern hemisphere, an assemblage of seed ferns spread throughout portions of south America South Africa Australia India and Antarctica. This flora is known as the _______ flora
127) _________ refers to the force imparted on a plate by the gravity-driven subduction of a cold dense slab of lithosphere surrounded by warmer asthhenosphere, thus pulling the rest od the plate along as it descends into the athenosphere.
slab pull
129) Oceanic __________ are the largest bathymetric features in the ocean basins.
130) During the Late Cretaceous, Antarctica began separating from Australia.
131) During the Late Jurassic, North America separated from South America as the ______ began forming.
Gulf of Mexico
132) _______ was comprised of Europe, part of Asia, Greenland, and North America.
133) By the Late Jurassic, the Atlantic had not yet formed north of Spain
134) During the ________ the South Atlantic Ocean widened rapidly
135) The large Pangaean supercontinent, with only a few stray landmasses unassembled, extended from pole to pole.
136) An east-west indentation into Pangaea, called the ______ began to form during the Early Triassic.
tethys sea
137) Most of Australia’s separation from Antarctica occurred during the ________.
139) At the beginning of the ________ Period (245 million years ago), all landmasses were assembled into a single continent called Pangaea.
140) During the Late Triassic, _________ began to split portions of Pangaea apart.
141) The ________ ended about 65 million years ago with the mass extinction that ended the reign of dinosaurs.
142) During the Cretaceous, North America was still connected to Europe and Asia
143) Europe separated from Greenland before or after the age of dinosaurs?
144) Late Cretaceous rifting and seafloor spreading also began to separate Greenland from North America by formation of the ___________.
Labrador Sea
145) Enormous rift systems began splitting up some of the Pangaean supercontinent late in the _______ period.
146) During the cretaceous Period India separated from Madagascar and began moving north (from Antarctica) to collide with Asia after extinction of dinosaurs.
the ______ Era includes that interval of time since the extinctions that ended the Mesozoic
148) Pangea was surrounded by the _______ Ocean.
149) During the Cretaceous, South America was completely disconnected from Antarctica as a large island continent.
1. At the peak of Mesozoic warmth, in the Cretaceous, the pole-to-equator temperature gradient was probably no more than ____ degrees C.
2. The Tethys Seaway divided Africa from Europe in the Middle Jurassic, separating African dinosaurs from their cousins to the north
3. Plate tectonic events inhibited early dinosaur dispersal
4. If the average rate of seafloor spreading increases on a global basis, ridge volume decreases
5. At their maximum, Cretaceous seas covered approximately half of the present land area of the earth.
6. During the Triassic, Gondwana was north of the equator
7. The lack of global glaciation can cause major major flooding of continents
8. During the Early Cretaceous, conifers became dominant over cycads
9. During the Late Jurassic, an interior seaway called the _______ Sea formed in North America, extending from the Arctic almost to the Gulf of Mexico
10. The Late Jurassic partial breakup of Pangaea and higher sea level increased the proximity of large land areas to the moisture of the ocean; as a result, climate became more continental (warmer with less seasonality) and drier
During the Jurassic, western North America was covered by expansive eolian sands.
12. Rocks of the Upper Jurassic contain more diverse and abundant dinosaur fossils than those of the earlier Jurassic.
13. The continued warm climate of the Late Cretaceous, combined with higher than average seafloor spreading rates, resulted in the highest sea level of the Mesozoic.
14. Monsoons are caused by seasonal differences in temperatures and atmospheric pressure between oceans and continents.
15. The rise of Late Jurassic sea level continued into the Cretaceous
For most of the Mesozoic, ________ occurred along the western margin of North America causing the formation of volcanic arcs and numerous collisional events of volcanic arcs and microcontinents.
17. During the Late Cretaceous, forests grew in coastal Antarctica and in Canada as far north as 85 degrees N latitude
18. Dry and hot desert conditions persisted in many interior continental areas of Pangaea during the Early and Middle Jurassic
19. Higher average temperatures cause some expansion of ocean waters and raise sea levels
During the Cretaceous, cool temperate forests covered the polar regions where there are seasonal snowfall and thick ice sheets.
During the Jurassic, western North America was covered by expansive eolian sands.
12. Rocks of the Upper Jurassic contain more diverse and abundant dinosaur fossils than those of the earlier Jurassic.
13. The continued warm climate of the Late Cretaceous, combined with higher than average seafloor spreading rates, resulted in the highest sea level of the Mesozoic.
14. Monsoons are caused by seasonal differences in temperatures and atmospheric pressure between oceans and continents.
15. The rise of Late Jurassic sea level continued into the Cretaceous
For most of the Mesozoic, ________ occurred along the western margin of North America causing the formation of volcanic arcs and numerous collisional events of volcanic arcs and microcontinents.
17. During the Late Cretaceous, forests grew in coastal Antarctica and in Canada as far north as 85 degrees N latitude
18. Dry and hot desert conditions persisted in many interior continental areas of Pangaea during the Early and Middle Jurassic
19. Higher average temperatures cause some expansion of ocean waters and raise sea levels
During the Cretaceous, cool temperate forests covered the polar regions where there are seasonal snowfall and thick ice sheets.
21. During the Triassic, sea level was higher than today but lower than the later Mesozoic.
24. The Connecticut River Valley was a Mesozoic ________ containing abundant dinosaur footprints
rift basin
26. Higher Late Jurassic sea level flooded the low-lying portions of continents creating____ sea
an epicontinental
27. Although Pangaea was beginning to rift apart in the ____, the still-connected continents facilitate widespread dispersal of the dinosaurs
28. The average elevation of physiographic regions of the ocean basins can change over time, as a consequence of changes in the rates of______
seafloor spreading
29. By the middle Jurassic, sea level began to rise again, continuing to a high level in the _____
Late Cretaceous
30. Closer toward the margins of Pangaea, _______climates of altering wet and dry seasons were common
Flowering trees and grasses evolved during the Middle Triassic
The average dinosaur skeletons contain approximately 300 bones
The relative size of dinosaur bones with respect to each other in a single individual stayed the same during all stages of growth from a juvenile to an adult
) A large interior seaway occurred during the Mesozoic along what region of North America?
a north-south corridor that encompasses much of today’s Rocky Mt. states northward into Alberta and all the way to the Arctic.)
Simple non-vascular plants like bryophytes were among the earliest land plants
The majority of dinosaur eggs have embryos in them
Textured skin decreases the surface area of a dinosaur’s skin more so than if it were smooth.
Late Cretaceous sea level was so high that it flooded the entire Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of the United States
If paleontologist’s interpretation of the evolutionary history of a group of organisms is correct, its phylogeny is (________, containing a group of organisms with a single ancestor and containing all the descendants of the ancestor.
Othniel Charles Mash (1831-1899) was a professor of paleontology at the Peabody Museum of this university
The great clade of Reptilia amniotes includes:
(crocodiles, dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and birds
) In the Ornithischia the pelvis (Ischia) is like that of birds (ornithos), and at least a part of the pelvis runs posteriorly
Synapsids are very diverse and underwent evolutionary radiation during the Early Paleozoic Era.
This method of determining the phylogeny or the genealogy of fossils is based upon a statistical evaluation of their shared unique features or evolutionary novelties
cladistic analysis
Among the primary bones of a dinosaur forelimb and feet are the
humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, and metacarpals)
Dinosaurs are classified into two distinct orders based upon the characteristics or arrangement of their:
pelvic bones
The three bones of the dinosaur pelvis merge to create an opening for the ball of the femur to fit into. This opening is called the:
Which of the following is an amniotic tetrapod?
For a while, feathered dinosaurs, true birds, and pterodactyls all were living at the same time: (
Our solar system is about 4.6 billion years old
Which of the following is a non-amniotic animal?
A section of Darwin’s evidence regarding evolution entitled “Rudimentary, atrophied, or aborted organs” referred to the remnants, or vestiges of features no longer used.
The prominent place of dinosaurs in our museums today is a legacy of Cope and Marsh, two men who brought natural history into the lives of every child of generations to come
) The individual’s experiments in cross-breeding pea plants led to the establishment of some of the basic laws of inheritance and the advent of modern genetic science
Gregor Mendel
) Which of the following is false
-dinos capable of powered flight
- dinosaurs exhibit examples of all five stages in the evolution of feathers,
- downy featheres evolved for insulation,
- one feathered dinosaur was capable of gliding
dinosaurs are capable of powered fight
Which individual had his scientific ideas shaped by a lengthy scientific voyage aboard the H.M.S. Beagle:
The outer layers of a plaster jacket can be removed with a chisel and hammer, but the inside layers must be removed using more precise tools such as a
Dental Cutting Wheel
Sea level was highest during this Mesozoic Period when there was little glaciations and fast sea-floor spreading rates
Which of the following areas was not among the three new major dinosaur discoveries of 1877 that involved collectors Marsh and Cope:
The Red River, Alberta
) During which geologic period did flowering plants first evolve
The most common dinosaur skin texture illustrated in the text resembles the surface texture of a
football or basketball
Thousands of dinosaur bones were sent back to eastern museums from Como Bluffs by way
Most dinosaur eggs are the size of a shot put or softball and are spherical to slightly prolate. (True)
The first dinosaur bones described in scientific publication were found in this country:
Which of the following statements is false:
-dinosaurs rarely exhibited nesting site fidelity
-dinosaur eggs have pores,
- a group of dinosaur eggs in a nest is called a clutch,
- dinosaur eggs rarely contain and embryo,
-a group of nests at a single nesting site is called a rookery
dinosaurs rarely exhibited nesting site fidelity
) In 1912, Osborn concluded from a comparison of the distribution, density, and size of skin texture between dinosaurs and modern reptiles that dinosaurs
may have had similar variations in skin pigmentations
Human beings, hummingbirds, crocodiles, and whales are all amniotes.
Geographic isolation of some of the population of a species can lead to speciation or the creation of a new species
_____grow in wet or damp areas often carpeting rocks and decaying wood on the forest floor.
Sphagnum mosses
the earliest forests on earth were what type of plants?
spore-producing plants that lived in wet lowlands)
Openings in the skulls of dinosaurs (other than for the eyes and nose) are called
Licenses are often required for import and export of equipment and fossils
The radius is the larger of the two lower forearms/forelegs
) Cycads and ginkgoes were common Mesozoic plants and still can be found in gville
The video that Dr. shot in the Collecting Dinosaurs topic 12 was taken in this dinosaur quarry
(Mygatt-Moore Quarry on the Colorado/Utah border)
This type of map shows the geologic ages and topographic relief in an area:
geologic map
Global sea level has been relatively constant throughout geologic history
More dinosaur nests and eggs have been in this country than any other
Darwin noted that in the struggle for life not all offspring survive, in fact there is a high mortality rate and only those that are the_____ survive
Dinosaur remains are typically found in remote areas away from major population centers
31. ______are seed-producing plants where the seed is exposed (not enclosed, e.g, woody scales of pine cone).-
32. All the modern conifer families were already members of the Early Mesozoic landscape—
33. An ancient group of conifers is the family ______ that still grows today in the Southern Hemisphere. –
34. Fossil fruit has never been in Mesozoic sedimentary rocks
35. The angiosperm reproductive system is enhanced by insect pollination
36. The first large forests of vascular plants filled wetlands during the _______ period. –
37. ________ are seedless, spore-producing vascular plants whose reproductive systems ties them to moist environments—
During the __________, angiosperms began overcoming non-flowering plants as the dominant land plants—
39. For most of Earth history, the land has been virtually void of all plant life
40. Spores are produced in structures called _________ (e.g., the prominent brown spots on the underside of fern fronds). –
High-browsing _______declined markedly between the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous.
____________are cone-bearing gymnosperms with seeds resting on the projecting scales of their cones.—
The ancient group of conifers known as Aracuarinaceae survive today in natural habitat and are most common in this region of the world
southern hemisphere
These plants are small and low-growing because they lack a water vascular system—
________plants are those lacking specialized cells for the movement of nutrients and water—
non vascular
47. Sphagnum or Peat moss is an example of a __________.
48. Seedless vascular plants were the earliest land plants
49. Ferns are ancient plants dating back long before dinosaurs
50. The Late Triassic decline in the distribution and abundance of these plants may be the result of increased grazing by dinosaur herbivores
seed ferns
51. Seed ferns are among the earliest seed-producing plants
52. The elevation above which trees cannot grow because of snow and very cold temperatures is known as the ________. –
tree line
53. The earliest vascular plants date back to the _________ period
54. Each nucleus contains protein strands of nucleic material called chromosomes that have paired strands of large molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid and known by the abbreviation DNA
55. Sympatric and allopatric speciation are forms of ____________.
Phyletic Gradualism
56. The natural variability of inherited characteristics of a species is known as its ______________.
Phenotypic Variation
57. Cladistic analysis is ill-suited to determine phylogeny
58. A system of biological classification was established by __________ in the eighteenth century
Carolus Linnaeus
59. When dealing with extinct groups of organisms, what constitutes a new species is based on anatomical or morphological differences.
60. Charles Darwin discovered the basic laws of heredity
61. Prior to Charles Darwin’s famous book, another naturalist had already begun the discussion on the nature of the origin of new species.
62. Both sympatric and allopathic speciation are considered to be forms of phyletic gradualism because they would produce in the fossil record a full range of intermediate forms between the ancestor and descendent species.
63. During replication of DNA, the two strands of the DNA double helix separate along the bases, producing a single-stranded near-replica of itself, RNA, which is the genetic code messenger to the _______
64. Mendel suggested that flowers have two possible genetic factors with a dominant _______ and a recessive ______ and that the color of the offspring’s flower could be predicted mathematically based upon the possible combinations of recessive and dominant genes.
65. In the 1970s a form of speciation was propose called _________
Punctuated equilibrium
66. DNA is located in the cell nucleus and is composed of two helical spiral strands known double helix
67. _________ makes species better suited to their environment and prevents less adapted members from reproducing.
natural selection
An Essay on the Principles of Population by ________ in 1798 states that populations increase geometrically while food increases arithmetically, and there
is a continuous struggle for food
Thomas Malthus
69. The first part of a species name indicates the family the species belongs to
70. Stratophenetic techniques have replaced cladistic analysis in modern studies of dinosaur phylogeny
72. Non-amniotic tetrapods have a reproductive link to water because they lay unprotected eggs which quickly dessicate out of water
73. The Reptilia include two important clades, the anapsida and the diapsida, and all their descendants
74. Dimetrodon was one of the first big land carnivores able to kill large prey
75. The dinosaurs arose from the amniota clade which divided into two major clades, the Avian and the Reptilia.
76. Modern and fossil turtles are anapsids and_________.
lack skull fenestra
77. These marine reptile groups are diapsids.
Ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs.
78. The ancestry of dinosaurs has the tetrapoda divided into two major groups, the non-amniotes and the amniotes
79. All mammals are synapsids
80. The _______ gave rise to lepidosauromorphia, archosauria, dinosaurian, and pterosauria.
81. Living groups of non-amniotic tetrapods, or the modern Amphibia are now placed in the lissamphibia.
82. Tetrapods include all four-legged land vertabrates.
83. The term dinosaurian was coined by this man to refer to a group of distinct archosaurian reptiles with upright posture.
Sir Richard Owen
84. Amniotes are all vertebrates that possess an extra embryonic layer called an archosaurion.
85. This order of dinosaur has “the pubis directed forward…and no posterior limb of the bone (pubis) is developed. “To put it in other words, the pubis is directed forward (anteriorly and slightly downward and the ischium points back
86. This synapsid is a pelycosaur with a large, narrow head bearing dagger-like teeth and long neural spines on the vertebrae, giving the back a sail-like appearance.
87. Topographic maps reveal changes in elevation, roads, trails, structures, political boundaries, springs, wells, etc
88. ____ is the mass of sediment sitting atop the dinosaur skeleton.
89. The process of dinosaur excavation begins by marking out the site to be excavated.
90. In the field, jacketed bones are isolated on a pedestal to ____.
facilitate turning them over
91. The Mygatt-Moore Quarry shown in the video is located _____.
utah-colorado border
92. United States scientists obtain most of their funding from which one of the following sources?
the national science foundation
93. Which of the following tools are used to remove sedimentary rock from around dinosaur bones?
all of these
94. Regions of topographic maps with contours close together represent flatter topography than regions where they are widely spaced.
95. Dinosaur bones with numerous fractures are stabilized prior to removal from the excavation site by ____.
brushing a synthetic glue on them
96. Geologic maps are useful in identifying rocks of Mesozoic age for examination of dinosaur remains.
97. By downloading topographic maps to a GPS unit you can plot your route and position on a topographic map in real time.
98. Topographic maps can provide information about the lateral extent of formations and their ages in a given geographic region.
99. At modern dinosaur excavation sites, the area being excavated is divided into a measured grid so the location and position of all bones can be recorded.
100. Heavy equipment (backhoes, bulldozers, etc.) is never used to remove thick sequences of overburden covering dinosaur bones.
101. By the end of the 1930s, much of the rich diversity of dinosaurs was beginning to be exposed.
102. The term “dinosaur” derives from the Greek word “dinosaurian” which means fighting lizard
103. The Cope and Marsh discoveries in Colorado and Wyoming were from the Triassic.
104. Richard Owen coined the term Dinosauria.
105. The American Museum of Natural History expeditions to Asia, led by Roy Chapman Andrews, collected in __________
The Gobi Desert of China and Mongolia
106. Between 1910 and 1917, a great Canadian dinosaur rush began where?
the red deer river valley
107. In 1858 the first relatively complete dinosaur to be found in the United States was found in this eastern state.
New Jersey
108. The first relatively complete dinosaur skeleton was completed in 1883.
109. Numerous dinosaurs were found in 1877 in a Bernissart, Belgium ___________.
Coal Mine
110. The first credited publication of dinosaur remains was by Solomon Ellsworth, Jr., in 1818.
111. In the years 1877 and 1878 large-scale discoveries of dinosaurs in Europe and the United States offered the first large-scale glimpse of whole dinosaurs.
112. This individual described the first relatively complete North American dinosaur and later became the president of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
Joseph Leidy
113. The journal of this famous expedition suggests it may have discovered dinosaur bones though none were collected or sketched.
Louis and Clark
114. Mosasaurus means ________
Meuse Lizard
115. The most prolific finds of dinosaur remains in the United States, during the late 1800s to early 1900s, came from this region.
the West
116. The first great international expedition to hunt dinosaur remains was by the Germans (1907- 1912) to _______
East Africa
117. Edward Hitchcock, a president and professor at Amherst College, described, illustrated, and collected dinosaur footprints from the Connecticut Valley.
The metatarsals are the bones between tarsals and phalanges
The metacarpals are the bones between the carpals and the phalanges
_____refers to the belly side of the dinosaur
The three main bones of the hind limb are the femur, tarsals and tibia
Many caudal vertebrae have an arch-like structure called a chevron ventral to the centrum
____means pertaining to the head end of the dinosaur
______means pertaining toward the rear end of the dinosaur
The ______is the axis aligned along head-neck-body-tail, an imaginary plane dividing the dinosaurs bilateral parts
_______ are small bones in front of the eye socket
Some dinosaurs had numerous teeth cemented together to form an extensive shearing and grinding surface called
dental batteries
______ are paired bones that make up the real dorsal surface of the dinosaur skull
Parietal bones
The orbit is a bony knob connecting the skull to the backbone
The shoulder girdle of dinosaurs consists of the scapula and smaller ulna
Bipedal dinosaurs habitually walked on their hind limbs, always having longer front limbs
The scapula is the largest bone at shoulder girdle
________refers to the lower opening of temporal region of the skull
Inferior or lateral temporal fenestra
_____ vertebrae are those of the hip region
The _____ connects the pelvis with the sacral vertebrae along the medial surface
______ refers to the back side of the dinosaur
_____ vertebrae are those of the tail
_____ refers to the upper opening of the temporal region of the skull
Supratemproal fenestra
The _____ is the smaller of the two lower leg bones which is attached to the tibia
_____ are the main bones of the upper jaw joints at the posterior of the skull
____ vertebrae are those of the neck, located between the head and back
_____ are paired bones at the posterior of the skull
Individual vertebrae have a spool shaped structure on their ventral side called the _____
Dinosaur skin pigments have been discovered and are of many colors-
The remarkable mummified dinosaur described by Osborn (1912) has large unbroken regions of fossilized skin of what type of dinosaur?
Archaeoraptor liaomingensis, a new species of dinosaur first described in National Geographic, conclusively established a link between birds and dinosaurs-
All feathers of feathered dinosaurs of are the downy type-
No modern reptiles have skin pigmentation/color or textured skin
Feathers appear to have evolved in dinosaurs for insulation
Sinornithosaurs millenii has long arms, long, curved claws, and possesses a boomerang-shaped furcula or wishbone
Some of the skin pavement tubercles illustrated by Osborn (1912) are arranged into cluster areas
Most soft tissue is fossilized as a mold or cast-
Casts and molds of dinosaur skin reveal that most consists of _____
A small oviraptosaur was found in Mongolia with an early evolutionary type of tailbone, the
In 1884, Wortzman discovered a skin cast of an iguanodont called
1. Dinosaur egg-shells have conductance values less than that of bird avian egg shells
2. Estimation of dinosaur growth rates depends upon knowing the size of hatchlings the full adult size of the same species and their type of metabolism (warm or cold-blooded).
3. One of the largest and most spectacular dinosaur rookery sites in the world was recently discovered near Tremp, Spain (web), containing more than 300,000 eggs.
4. The initial definitive discoveries of dinosaur eggs was made in 1922 by an expedition of the American museum of natural history to Mongolia
5. Most dinosaur eggs no longer have anything organic in them
6. The largest single clutch of dinosaur eggs contains ________.
More than 10 eggs
7. An assemblage of fossil dinosaur eggs in close proximity to one another is referred to as a clutch.
8. Generally the rates of determinate growth in mammals and birds is greater than in reptiles.
9. More egg sites occur in south America than on any other continent
10. Dinosaur egg porosity influences the surface texture of dinosaur eggs.
11. The external texture, internal structure, and composition of dinosaur eggs is vastly different from that of modern egg-layers.
12. Some hatchlings weighing less than 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds) are estimated to have increased their body weight as adults by 400 to over 2000 times their hatchling weight (e.g., 2.4 kg to more than 5000 kg).