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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong
Moral Development
The first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occuring at 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people
Heteronomous Morality
The second stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, displayed by children about 10 years of age and older. At this stage, children become aware that rules and laws are created by people and that in judging an action they should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences.
Autonomous morality
Belief that if a rule is broken punishment will be meted out immediately
Immanent justice
the lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The individual's moral reasoning is controlled primarily by external rewards and punishments.
Precoventional reasoning
The first stage of preconventional reasoning in Kohlberg's theory, in which moral thinking is tied to punishment.
Heteronomous Morality
The second Kohlberg stage of preconventional reasoning. At this stage, individuals pursue their own interests but also let others do the same.
Individualism, instrumental purpose and exchange
the second, or intermediate, level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, individuals abide by the standards of others such as parents or the laws of society.
Conventional reasoning
Kohlberg's third stage of moral development. At this stage, individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgments
Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
The fourth stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Moral judgments are based on understanding the social order, law, justice and duty.
Social Systems Morality
The highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, the individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on a personal moral code.
Postconventional reasoning
The fifth Kohlberg stage of moral development. At this stage, individuals reason the values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law
Social Contract or utility and individual rights
The sixth and highest stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Individuals develop a moral standard based on universal human rights.
Universal Ethical Principles
A moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions
Justice Perspective
The moral perspective of Carol Gilligan; views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others
Care Perspective
Focuses on conventional rules established by social consensus and convention, as opposed to moral reasoning, which stresses ethical issues
Social conventional reasoning
The theory that distinguishes between moral competence-the ability to produce moral behaviors and moral performance-performing those behaviors in specific situations
Social Cognitive Theory of Morality
The component of the superego that rewards the child by conveying a sense of pride and personal value when the child acts according to ideal standards approved by the parents.
Ego ideal
The component of the superego that punishes the child for behaviors disapproved of by parents by making the child guilty and worthless
Reacting to another's feelings with an emotional response that is similar to the other's feelings
The aspect of personality that is present when individuals have moral notions and commitments that are central to their lives
Moral Identity
People who have a moral personality, identity, character, and set of virtues that reflect moral excellence and commitment
Moral exemplars
The pervasive moral atmosphere that characterizes every school
Hidden Curriculum
A direct moral education program in which students are taught moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior
Character Education
A moral education program in which students are helped to clarigy what their lives are gor and what is worth working for. Students are encouraged to define their own values and understand others' values.
Values Clarification
A moral education program based on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops; Kohlberg theory has been the basis for many of the cognitive moral education programs
Cognitive Moral Education
A form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community
Service Learning
An unselfish interest in helping another person
An aspect of procial behavior that occurs when the injured person releases the injurer from possible behavioral rehabilitation
A feeling of thankfulness and appreciation, especially in response to someone's doing something kind or helpful
Age-inappropriate actions andattitudes that violate family expectations, society's norms and the personal or property rights of others
Conduct Disorder
Actions taken by an adolescent in breaking the law or engaging in illegal behavior
Juvenille delinquency
Beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be
an organized set of beliefs, practices, rituals, and symbols that increases an individual's connection to a sacred or transcendent other (God, higher power, or higher truth)
the degree of affiliation with an organized religion, participation in prescribed rituals and practices, connection with its beliefs, and involvement in a community of believers.
experiencing something beyond oneself in a transcendent manner and living in a way that benefits others and society
drawing on beliefs, values and goals to change the meaning of a stressful situation, especially in times of high levels of stress such as when a loved one dies
meaning-making coping
a learner-centered approach that emphasizes the individual's active, congitive construction of knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher
constructivist approach
a teacher-centered approach characterized by teacher direction and control, high expectations for students' progress, and maximum timespent on academic tasks
direct instruction approach
education that involves the whole child by considering both the child's physical, cognitive and socioemotional development and the child's needs, interests and learning styles
child-centered kindergarten
an educational philosophy in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and are allowed to move from one activity to another as they desire
montessori approach
education that focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children (age appropriateness) and the uniqueness of each child (individual appropriateness). Such practice contrasts with developmentally inappropriate practice, which has an academic, direct instruction emphasis focused largely on abstract paper-and-pencil activities, seatwork, and rote/drill practice activities.
developmentally appropriate practice (DAP)
compensatory education designed to provide children from low-income families the opportunity ot acquire skills and experiences important for school success
project head start
the circumstance of moving from the top position in elementary school to the youngest, smallest, and least powerful postion in middle or junior high school.
top-dog phenomenon
disabilities in which children experience difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language; the difficulty can appear in listening, thinking, reading writing, and spelling. The learning problem is not primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; mental retardation; emotional disorders; or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
learning disability
A disability in which children consistently show one or more of the follwing characteristics: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
also called pervasive developmental disorders, these range from the severe disorder labeled autistic disorder to the milder disorder called asperger syndrome. children with these disorders are characterized by problems in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors
autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)
a severe autism spectrum disorder that has its onset in the first three years of life and includes deficiencies in social relationships; abnormalities in communication; and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior.q
autistic disorder
a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder in which the child has relatively good verbal language skills, milder nonverbal language problems, and a restricted range of interests and relationships
asperger syndrome
a written statement that spells out a program tailored ot a child with disability. the plan should be related to the child's learning capacity, specially constructed to meet the child's individual needs and not merely a copy of what is offered to other children and designed to provide educational benefits.
individualized education plan (IEP)
A setting that is as similar as possiblle to the one where children learn without a disability are educated
least restrictive environment (LRE)
education of a child with special educational needs full-time in the regular classroom
doing something to obtain something else (the activity is a means to an end).
extrinsic motivation
doing something for its own sake; involves factors such as self-determination and opportunities to make choices
intrinsic motivation
a perspective in which one is task-oriented - concerned with learning strategies and the process of achievement rather than the outcome
mastery orientation
an orientation in which one seems trapped by the experience of difficulty and attributes one's difficulty to a lack of ability
helpless orientation
an orientation in which one focuses on whinning, rather than on achievement outcome; happiness is thought to result from winning.
performance orientation
the cognitive view individuals develop for themselves that either is fixed or involves growth
the belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes
a neurological definition of death - an individual is dead when all electrical activity of the brain has ceased for a specified period of time
brain death
the act of painlessly ending the lives of persons who are suffering from incurable diseases or severe disabilities; sometimes called "mercy killing".
the withholding of available treatments, such as life-sustaining devices, allowing the person to die
passive euthanasia
death induced deliberately, as by injecting a lethal dose of a drug
active euthanasia
a program committed to making the end of life as free frompain, anxiety, and depression as possible. the goals contrast with those of a hospital, which are to cure disease and prolong life.
emphasized in hospice care; involves reducing pain and suffering and helping individuals die with dignity
palliative care
kuber-ross' first stage of dying, in which the dying person denies that she or he is really going to die
denial and isolation
kubler-ross' second stage of dying, in which the dying person's denial gives way to anger, resentment, rage, and envy
kubler-ross' third stage of dying, in which the dying person develops the hope that death can somehow be postponed
kubler-ross' fourth stage of dying, in which the dying person perceives the certainty of her or his death. A period of depression or preparatory grief may appear.
kubler-ross' fifth stage of dying, in which the dying person develops a sense of peace, an acceptance of her or his fate, and, in many cases, a desire to be left alone
the emotional numbness, disbelief, separation anxiety, despair, sadness, and loneliness that accompany the loss of someone we love.
grief that involves enduring despair and is till unresolved over an extended period of time
prolonged grief
grief involving a deceased person that is a socially ambiguous loss that can't be openly mourned or supported
disenfranchised grief
a model of coping with bereavement that emphasizes oscillation between loss-oriented stressors and restoration-oriented stressors
dual-process model