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64 Cards in this Set

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Discuss FIVE phases of a negotiation and suggest the activity that might take place at each stage

- P.165 figure 11.2
- Pre-negotiation phase
- Introductory meeting
- Discussion meeting
- Agreement meeting
- Post negotiation phase

Identify THREE types of non-verbal communication and explain why each is important in negotiation.

- eye contact

- poximity

- body language

- get pg number and more detail on correct terms

Explain the use of FOUR different types of questions in a negotiation.

  • leading - 'these prices are fixed for a year, aren't they?'
  • closed - 'Can you delivery October 20?'
  • open - 'What can we do to improve that?'
  • probing - 'What specific tests do you do to ensure quality?'

Discuss THREE persuasion methods that can be used in a negotiation.

  • Threat
  • Emotion
  • Logic
  • Compromise
  • Bargaining

Outline how to analyse the process and outcomes of a negotiation.

  • Kolb learning cycle
  • p.215

Explain the following tactics and how they might be used in a commercial negotiation:

(i) The add-on

(ii) Good cop/bad cop

(iii) Split the difference.

  • The add on - adding addition pricing e.g. delivery costs
  • Good cop - has a mean boss who wont allow it
  • Split the difference - meet you half way
  • Add in extra detail

Explain how each of the following might impact upon a commercial negotiation:

(i) Non-verbal communication

(ii) Culture.

  • kinesics
  • poximics
  • Add in extra detail

Outline THREE elements of the opening stage of a negotiation.

  • Rapport builidng
  • information seeking
  • positioning
  • building a conducive atmosphere e.g. nice coffee

Explain the closure phase of a commercial negotiation.

  • verbal and non-verbal e.g. summarising, signing agreement, shaking hands
  • evaluation of the negotiation outside the meeting

Explain FOUR tactics that may be used in a commercial negotiation.

  • Could also be ploys/tactics such as add-on and salami

Outline THREE examples of ‘active listening’ that may contribute to effective commercial negotiations.

What are the stages of negotiation in the Greenhalgh model?

  1. Perparation
  2. relationship building
  3. information gathering
  4. information using
  5. bidding
  6. closing the deal
  7. implementing the agreement

What are the stages of negotiation in the Kennedy Model?

  1. Prepare
  2. Debate
  3. Propose
  4. Bargain

What are the stages of negotiation in the Bailey et al model?

  1. Pre-negotiaiton
  2. Negotiation
  3. Post-negotiation

What are adjournments?

to carry on the negotiation in a separate meeting, may be a tact to allow the party to re-group, gather more info or plan new positions.

How do the stages of negotiation differ in an integrative negotiation v a distributive?


  • identify the problem
  • understand the problem
  • generate solutions
  • evaluate and select solution
  • agreement


  • opening offer
  • opening stance
  • gaining and yielding
  • final offer
  • agreement
What is Rapport?

Is the sense of relationship or connection we have with a person. One of the most important tasks of integrative negotiation. Helps create trust and common ground for agreement.

What are the six elements involved in the opening focus of an integrative negotiation?
1. define the problem that is acceptable to both sides 2. state the problem toward practicalness 3. state the problem as a goal and identify obstables 4. deprersonalise the problem 5. separate the problem from solutions 6. seek to understand the problem
What are effective behaviors in the opening phase of integrative negotiation?
1. Rapport building 2. assertvie communication 3. using questions for clarification 4. facilitating behaviours 5. utilise verbal and non verbal signals 6. create atmosphere for negotiation
What are the key tasks in the early phase of negotiation?
1. testing and validation of assumptions 2. testing other partys position 3. clarifying issues and their importance 4. ascertain if any surprises ahead
The evaluation of options involves what tasks according to Lewis et al?
1. narrow down the options 2. evaluate based on quality and acceptability 3. agree evaluation criteria in advance 4. be willing to probide justification 5. be alert to influence 6. take time to cool off 7. minimise formality
What are three methods of persausion?
appeal to: 1. emotion 2. logic 3. threat
Why is the closure stage important?
1. provides foundation for ongoing relationship 2. provides tool for future buy-in 3. provides agenda and allocation of responsibilities and accountabilities 4. a written record 5. can be used to develop contract agreements
What is influencing?
The process of applying some form of power or pressure in order to change other peoples attitudes or behaviours
What is power?
Can be applied to direct peoples behaviours in various wyas
What is negotiation?
a process where two parties come together intentionally to confer with a view to concluding a jointly acceptable agreement
How are influencing and negotiation different?
Influencing is: 1. a series of events not single 2. need not be intentional 2. not involve conferring 3. need to end with an explicit agreement 4. need not require compromise by both parties
What are the three forms peoples response to influence?
1. Resistance: activly avoid complying 2. Compliance: willing to do what is requested 3. Commitment: becomes aligned with their own goals and agree.
Describe the push approach to influencing?
1. exerting power or authority 2. aware the process in overt 3. aimed to secure compliance
Describe the pull approach to influencing?
1. use of persausion 2. may not be aware of the process 3. can secure commitment
What is persausion?
a means of exerting influence over people by means other than using authority or power. The basis of a pull approach of influencing.
What is a facilitative approach and the skills required?
A logical argument where each step is clearly explained and linked. Key attribute of a pull approach. 1. use of questions and answers 2. present complex arguments in manageable sections 3. ask for feedback 4. sensitivity and flexibility
What are the techniques of persausion?
1. Threat: veiled or explicit statements, suitable only in distributive negotiations 2. Emotion: appeal of goodwill 3. Logic: a central tool to negotiations, is supplier agrees with each step presented, it is hard to say no at the end. 4. Compromise: finding middle ground. 5 Bargaining: extracting value by exchange or various items
What are the three influencing tactics?
1. impression: enchanced credibility in the eyes of other people 2. political 3. Proactive: conditions set up where one is more likely to help.
What are the negotiation tactics in an integrative negotiation?
1. expanding the pie 2. log-rolling: trade high and low priority problems 3. non-specific compensation: concessions on unrelated benefits 4. cutting the cost of compliance: minimise cost and risk to make is easier to say yes 5. bridging: reformulate issues for a win-win outcome
What are the influencing tactics and negotiation ploys in negotiation?
1. Tough guy/soft guy 2. salami tactic 3. add on 4. mother hubbard 5. russian front 4. split the difference 5. now or never 6. lowball/highball 7. bogey 8. the nibble 9. chicken 10. snow job.
What are some of the mainstream technologies established by NLP developers?
1. Preffered information processing channels: how people best process information eg. Visual 2. Mirroring: mimicking to establish rapport 3. Pacing and leading: get them on side then change pace and re-frame their issues 4. anchoring: conditioning techniques 5. mental rehersal: visualising the outcome 6. framing: putting things in a different context 7. positioning: shifting positiong to different perspectives 8. intentional use of language: to shift thought.
How do you avoid being manipulated by NLP technologies?
ABC approach: A - acknowledge it for what it is B - break down the content C - challenge it
What are four sources of moral standards that can guide a negotiators thinking?

1. End result ehtics: an action is good if the consequences as a whole are good 2. rule ethics: compliance with law 3. social contract ethics: compliance with customs and norms in the culture 4. personal ethics: innate sense of right and wrong

Discuss FIVE phases of a negotiation and suggest the activity that might take place at each stage

- P.165 figure 11.2

- Pre-negotiation phase

- Introductory meeting

- Discussion meeting

- Agreement meeting

- Post negotiation phase

Why is preparing and planning central to negotiations?

  • gather adequate info
  • take stakeholders into account
  • prepare approach
  • establish responses
  • ensure team is in agreement
What are the behavours successful negotiators do in pre-negotiation planning?
1. consider wider range of outcomes and options 2. give more attention to areas od common ground and argument 3. think about long term implications 4. set objetives 5. plan around issues
What are the behavours successful negotiators do in face to face negotiatory meetings?
1. behaviour labelling 2. ask more questions 3. summarise and test understanding 4. comment on feelings 5. use fewer irritators
What are the two broad concepts of personality?
1. Traits: stable attributes or qualities to behave in a certain way 2: Ypes: labels for patterns or clusters of traits. E.g. extrovert, introvert.
What are the six differences between males and females in negotiation?
1. relational view of others 2. embedded view of agency: men see negotiation having a beginning and end. 3. belief about own ability and worth 4. control through empowerments 5. problem solving through dialouge 6. perceptions and stereotypes
What are interpersonal skills?
interations between two or more people; rapport building, communication, influencing and persausion, negotiation, conflict management, team working
What are intrapersonal skills?
within an individual; self awareness, management of meotions, self control and learning
What is emotional intelligence? (EQ)
Being aware of and sensitive to the needs and emotions of other people and respond flexibly to them in a way that builds relationships and gets the best out of people
What are key rapport building techniques?
1. mirroring 2. using same language 3. use same expressions 4. active listening 5. topics of common interest 6. remembering names
What are the components of EQ for procurement ?
1. Self awareness 2. emotional resiliiance 3. motivation 4. interpersonal skills 4. interpersonal sentitivity 5. influence 6. intuitivness 7. conscientious and integrity
What are the three basic models of listening?
1. Passive: hearing without attempting to engage 2. Acknowledging: giving basic feedback signals 3. Active: filly uses feedback
Why is active listening helpful?
1. facilitiates understanding and gives more information gathering 2. helps recall of conversation 3. build rapport
What are the behaviours of active listening?
1. building rapport 2. signially interest 3. engaging activly 4. giving feedback
What are characteristics of effective listeners?
1. non-verbal behaviour 2. focus attention 3. acceptance 4. empathy 5. probing 6. paraphrasing 7. summrising
What are the types of questions?
1. open 2. closed 3. probing 4. multiple 5. leading 6. reflective 7. hypothetical
What are three non-verbal cues?
1. Kinesic behavour: body language 2. proxemics: closeness 3. object language: appearance
What are non-verbal communication tehcniques?
1. eye contact 2. body position 3. non-verbal encouragment
What are hofstede five cultureal dimensions?
1. Power distance 2. uncertainty avoidence 3. individualism/collectivism 4. masculinity v feminitiy 5. long term orientation
What is high and low context cultures?
Low context cultures: german, face value communitcation High context: asian, non-verbal is important
What is the kolb experiential learning cycle?
1. ACT: concrete experience 2. ANALYSE: reflect 3. ABSTRACT: hypothsise 4. ADJUST: test hypothsis in new situation
What are useful tools in relfecting on negotiation performance?
1. use of journal 2. critical indicent analysis 3. post negotiation review and evaluation 4. seek feedback
What are the key processes and activities in contract management?
1. contract development 2. contract administration 3. manage contract performance 4. contract review 5. relationship management 6. renewal or termination
What are the consequences if the contract is not managed well?

1. supplier takes control of performance 2. decision may not be made at the right time or at all 3. supplier doesn’t understand obligations 4. misunderstandings 5. slow progress 6. benefits of contract not realsied 7. imporvements opportunities lost

How do you improve supplier commitment?

1. performance management 2. maintain communication 3. secure sponsorship from SMT 4. build trust and good will 5. be an attractive customer