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67 Cards in this Set

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What are the various modes of aerobic exercise?
Cycling, running, swimming
What are various modes of anaerobic exercise?
Core, multi-joint, assistance, sport specific
What are the various modes of resistance training exercises?
Core, multi-joint, assistance
What are the various modes of flexibility training?
Active and passive stretching, ballistic stretch, static stretch, dynamic stretch
Under what circumstances would a particular mode of exercise be chosen?
Activities that mimic as closely as possible the movement pattern employed in competition
How does resistance training load and volume relate to the goal of training?
Strength-greater than 85% of 1 RM, less than 6 reps, 2-6 sets. Power single event-80-90% of 1RM, 1-2 reps, 3-5 sets. Power multi event-75-85% of 1RM, 3-5 reps, 3-5 sets. Hypertrophy-67-85% of 1RM, 6-12 reps, 3-6 sets. Muscular Endurance- less than 67% of 1RM, 12 reps or greater, 2-3 sets
How does aerobic training intensity relate to the goal of training?
The higher the exercise intensity the shorter the exercise duration. Monitoring VO2max compared to O2 consumption is the best measure of intensity.
How does the interval training work:rest ratio relate to the goal of training?
Work:rest ratio is 1:1. Work intervals should be 3-5 minutes and involves exercises at an intensity close to VO2max
How should resistance training and plyometric training be applied together in a training program?
Combine lower body resistance with upper body plyo and vise versa. Complex training can be incorporated with combines heavy resistance with plyo but must follow some strict guidelines. See page 423
What are positive and negative effects of combining different training modes in a training program?
Injuries, overtraining, loss of power or speed are some negatives. Helps with sports that have an aerobic and anaerobic component, prepares athletes for competition more realistically.
How does concurrent resistance and aerobic training affect strength gains? Cardiovascular gains?
Power and strength can be reduced when combining a resistance and aerobic program. However it appears cardiovascular gains are not affected negatively and may actually improve with some resistance training.
What exercises are most appropriate for a specific sport movement (tennis forehand, shot put, etc)?
Various see study material
What muscle groups are involved during specific sport movements?
Various see study material
What training mode(s) are most specific to particular sport activities?
Various see study material
What muscles are involved during a resistance training exercise? Flexibility? Plyometric?
Various see study material
How do similar exercises affect muscle recruitment (incline vs flat bench press, etc)?
Various see study material
How does a change in an exercise result in a change of the involved muscle?
Various see study material
What is a closed kinetic chain movement or exercise?
One is which the terminal point meets with considerable resistance that prohibits or restrains its free motion; that is the distal joint is stationary.
What is an open kinetic chain movement or exercise?
Use a combination of successively arranged joints in which the terminal joint is free to move; open kinetic chain exercises allow for greater concentration on an isolated joint or muscle.
How are exercises prescribed based on the type of kinetic chain movement?
Closed exercises are usually more functionally and primarily, but not always, involve the lower body (squats, etc). Open exercises (leg extension, sprinting) are good for injured and rehab athletes.
How is muscle balance determined?
Does not mean equal strength always, just a proper ratio of strength, power, or muscular endurance of one muscle or muscle group relative to another muscle or muscle group
Why is muscle balance important?
To decrease a risk of injury and maximize performance
How does muscle imbalance increase the risk of injury?
A disparity between the strength of the agonist muscle and antagonist will cause the weaker of the two to pull or strain disproportionately which may result in injury. Stronger quads the hams can cause the hams to pull when running is an example
How can muscle balance be avoided?
By utilizing proper exercise selection that has the proper ratio of strength, power, muscular endurance from one muscle group to the other. Does not mean equal strength.
What exercises should be emphasized to remedy muscle imbalance across a joint?
Curls vs Tri, Squats vs SL Deadlift, Bench Press vs Lat Pull down, etc.
Why is exercise order important?
Because exercises need to be arranged so that an athlete's maximal force capabilities are available to complete a set with proper exercise technique.
How does exercise order change throughout the training cycle?
Off-season routines can be split to increase training time without increasing days. Pre-season training the frequency is decreased from the off-season to allow more time to apply to the specific sport skill. In-season need to be planned so they don't affect the athlete's performance on days of competition, less frequency.
How does exercise order change based on the goal of training?
A push-pull order is good for athletes coming back from rehab. Super & Compound Sets are good for conditioned athletes and are time efficient. Upper & Lower are good for untrained athletes and are time efficient as well.
What are the methods for arranging resistance training exercises within a training session?
Core (multi-joint) exercises receive priority as they have direct application to the sport. Assistance exercises (single) are less important and are good for rehab or injury prevention. Structural exercise is a core exercise and involves posture, power exercise is a structural exercise that is performed very quickly or explosively.
Why should a particular exercise order be chosen over another?
A push-pull order is good for athletes coming back from rehab. Super & Compound Sets are good for conditioned athletes and are time efficient. Upper & Lower are good for untrained athletes and are time efficient as well.
When should the flexibility, plyometric, aerobic, warm-up, and cool-down exercises be performed during the training session?
Warm-up, plyo, aerobic, cool-down, flexibility
How is a rep max used to determine training loads?
Loads are calculated as a % of a tested or estimated 1RM; training loads are specifically determined from multiple-RM testing
Is the assignment of training loads different based on the exercise? Explain.
Yes. Depending on the area of the body and the training goals, different loads can be assigned (75% of 1RM for upper body, 85% of 1RM for lower body) for different exercises affecting the different parts of the body. Different for Core and assistance exercises.
What is the importance of determining an athlete's rep max (1RM or 10RM)?
Knowing the 1RM or 10RM allows the trainer to assign proper training loads based off of a % of the RM. See table 15.7 on page 394
What steps are involved when determining an athlete's rep max (1RM or 10RM)?
A common strategy for testing is to conduct a 1RM test in several core exercises and use multiple-RM testing for assistance exercises.
How is the rep max test chosen (1RM vs 10RM)?
A common strategy for testing is to conduct a 1RM test in several core exercises and use multiple-RM testing for assistance exercises for sufficiently trained athletes. For untrained multiple-RM is needed instead of 1RM. 1RM should not be used for exercises that cannot provide valid and reliable data.
How does the training load relate to the goal of training?
Specific load and rep assignments via the RM continuum, a percentage of 1RM, or the results of multiple-RM testing can be applied to reach the training goal. Also the movement and physiological analysis of the sport and priorities of the sport season play a part. See table 15.9 page 401
How does training load relate to training volume?
Volume is based directly on the athlete's training goal. Usually the more volume the less load and vise versa. See table 15.11 page 406.
How are intensities (HR, RPE) established for aerobic endurance training?
The higher the intensity the shorter exercise duration. Monitoring O2 consumption during exercise to determine VO2max or measuring blood lactate are the best ways to establish proper intensity.
How does the target HR change with different modes of aerobic training (long slow distance, interval training)?
For LSD 80% of max HR so you will be in the THR zone a longer period of time (about 40 mins or so). Interval training is close to VO2max. See pages 498-499
What is training volume?
It is the total amount of weight lifted in a training session.
What are the different measures of training volume? How are they calculated?
Rep-Volume is total number of reps in a session
Load-Volume is total number of sets x reps x weight. Ex - 2 sets of 10 reps with 50 pounds = 1000 pounds.
What activities or sports require training with high volumes? Low volumes?
Strength less that 6 reps, 2-6 sets.
Power single 1-2 reps, 3-5 sets.
Power multi 3-5 reps, 3-5 sets.
Hypertrophy 6-12 reps, 3-6 sets.
Muscular endurance more that 12 reps, 2-3 sets
How can training volume be manipulated to meet training goals (hypertrophy, etc)?
Strength less that 6 reps, 2-6 sets.
Power single 1-2 reps, 3-5 sets.
Power multi 3-5 reps, 3-5 sets.
Hypertrophy 6-12 reps, 3-6 sets.
Muscular endurance more that 12 reps, 2-3 sets
How does training volume relate to the goal of training?
Volume is based directly on the athlete's training goal.
How does volume relate to training status?
For a beginner only 1-2 sets to start then add more sets as they progress until they reach the goals on table 15.11 page 406.
How do the duration of the work and rest periods relate to the goal of training? To the involved energy systems?
See table 2.7 on page 37. Phosphagen 5-10 secs of work; 1:12 to 1:20 ratio of rest. Fast Glycolysis 15-30 secs of work; 1:3 to 1:5 ratio of rest. Fast Glycolysis and Oxidative 1-3 mins of work; 1:3 to 1:4 ratio of rest. Oxidative greater 3 mins of work; 1:1 to 1:3 ratio of rest.
How are the work:rest ratios assigned based on the goal of training? Of the involved energy systems?
Strength 2-5 minutes of rest
Power - Single and Multi event 2-5 minutes of rest
Hypertrophy 30 seconds - 1.5 minutes of rest
Muscular Endurance less than 30 seconds of rest
What type of recovery method (passive or active) is recommended?
Passive recovery especially after long duration and/or high intensity training sessions
How does training frequency relate to the goal of training?
It is the number of training sessions completed in a given time period, usually a week. The athlete's training status, sport season, projected exercise loads, types of exercises and other concurrent activities must be taken into account.
How is frequency assigned based on the goal of training?
Strength- 3 days a week, at least one but no more than 3 days of rest between. Plyometrics-2 to 4 a week, at least 48-72 hours of rest between. Aerobic-more than twice a week to increase VO2max but at least 1 day a week of rest.
How does exercise progression relate to an athlete's current training status?
The higher the athlete's condition or experience the more progression, however no more than 10% of the workload each week. Once higher levels of fitness are obtained only exercise intensity manipulation will allow progression.
When and how (absolute or relative changes) should an athlete's training intensity, duration or frequency be increased?
Depending on the season or the athlete's goal see table 18.5 pg 501. It is a relative change process. During off-season frequency is high, duration long, intensity is low to moderate. Preseason frequency very high, duration moderate to long, and intensity moderate to high. In-season frequency high, duration short, intensity low, Postseason frequency moderate, duration short, intensity low. This is an aerobic example.
How does exercise progression relate to the goal of training?
As an athlete adapts to training a strategy must be implemented for advancing exercise loads so the improvements will continue over time.
What criteria should a strength and conditioning professional use to evaluate an athlete to determine proper exercise progression?
Resistance is the 2 for 2 rule: perform 2 or more reps over last rep goal for a given exercise in the last two consecutive workouts, weight of 2.5-10% can be added. For aerobics heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, METs or VO2max.
What is periodization? What physiological responses are the basis of the periodization model?
A preplanned, systematic variations in training specificity, intensity, and volume organized in periods or cycles within an overall program. The responses are from the GAS which is 3 phases: shock/alarm, resistance, exhaustion. Causes the body to be confused and to adapt to changes placed on it.
What are the various periodization phases and what are they typical goals of each?
Preparatory-base level of conditioning to increase tolerances to higher levels of training. First Transition-low intensity and volume for a week or so until the next phase. Competition-Very high intensity and low volume training and practicing in skill and game techniques. Second Transition-active rest and focuses on non-structured, non-sport activities, low intensity and volume.
How do training volume and intensity change during the 4 sport season phases?
Depending on the season or the athlete's goal see table 18.5 pg 501. It is a relative change process. During off-season frequency is high, duration long, intensity is low to moderate. Preseason frequency very high, duration moderate to long, and intensity moderate to high. In-season frequency high, duration short, intensity low, Postseason frequency moderate, duration short, intensity low. This is an aerobic example.
How do these volume and intensity assignments vary based on a certain sport?
See examples on page 385 etc.
What is a needs analysis? How is it used to design a sport-specific training program?
A 2-stage process that includes an evaluation of the requirements and characteristics of the sport and an assessment of the athlete. It is the first step in designing any exercise program.
During what phase should sport-specific exercises be integrated into the periodization program?
Competition Phase
How do a sport's requirements help determine the training focus of a certain sport season?
Through a needs analysis of the sport in question which include a movement, physiological, and injury analysis proper focus is placed on what is needed and how long each season should last depending on the nature of the sport and number of competitions.
What is the training focus of an athlete just beginning a sport-specific training program?
To establish a base line of condition to prepare them for more intense exercise routines and sport specific tasks.
In what ways is an experienced athlete's training program different from a beginner's program?
Advance athletes invariably train closer to their abilities and have smaller adaptational windows, their volume and intensity assignments are consistently higher.
What forms of exercise are appropriate during the rehab process?
Inflamation Phase-no exercise involving the injuried area
Repair Phase-Isometric pain free exercises. Isokinetic and isotonic exercises can be used. Remodeling Phase-Functional training like joint-angle specific strengthening, velocity-specific, closed kinetic chain exercises, and exercises that enhance neuromuscular control.
How can exercises be modified based on movement restrictions or contraindications caused by injury?
Example of an athlete who needs to strengthen his upper body but has a shoulder injury in which a bench press may aggravate it. You would work in a different type of bench press (incline) or a different exercise altogether.
If an area has been injured, what other body system (cardiovascular, muscular) must be addressed to maintain fitness level?
Strategies to maintain cardiorespiratory fitness must be implemented during the inflammatory phase. Depending on the injury depends on the appropriate training program.