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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
system software
Programs such as the operating system and utility programs that control a computer and its devices, and enable application software to run on the computer
operating system
a collection of programs that manage and coordinate the activities taking place within the computer
boot process
the actions taken by programs built into the computer's hardware to start the operating system
What is one principal role of every operating system?
translate user instructions into a form the computer can understand.
user interface
the means by which an operating system or other program interacts with the user
kernel
the essential portion, or core, of the operating system
device driver (driver)
a small program used to communicate with a peripheral device, such as a monitor, printer, or keyboard
file management
to keep track of the files stored on a computer so they can be retrieved when needed
multitasking
the ability of an operating system to have more than one program (also called a task) open at one time
thread
a sequence of instructions within a program that is independent of other threads
multiprocessing
a processing technique in which multiple processors or multiple processing cores in a single computer each work on a different job
parallel processing
a processing technique that uses multiple processors or multiple processsing cores simultaneously, usually to process a single job as fast as possible
virtual memory
a memory management technique frequently used by operating systems that uses a portion of the computer's hard drive as additional RAM
page file (swap file)
the virtual memory area of a hard drive
Multitasking and multithreading are forms of...
sequential processing
In sequential processing, tasks are performed...
one right after the other
Multiprocessing and parallel processing are forms of...
simultaneous processing
In simultaneous processing, multiple tasks are performed at...
the exact same time
How does virtual memory work?
1) Pages of programs or data are copied from RAM to the virtual memory area of the hard drive.
2) Pages are copied back to RAM as they are needed for processing.
3) As more room in RAM is needed, pages are copied to virtual memory and then deleted from RAM.
4) The swapping process continues until the program finishes executing.
device drivers (a.k.a. drivers)
a small program used to communicate with a peripheral device, such as a monitor, printer, or keyboard
user interface
the means by which an operating system or other program interacts with the user
shareware program
a software program that is distributed on the honor system; typically available free of charge but may require a small registration fee
freeware program
a software program that is given away by the author for others to use free of charge
system software consists of...
the operating system and utility programs that control a computer system and allow you to use a computer.
the operating system is loaded into memory during the _____ process
boot
kernel
the essential portion, or core, of the operating system.
-loaded into memory during the boot process
multitasking
the ability of an operating system to have more than one program (also called a task) open at one time.
multiprocessing
a progressing technique that uses multiple processors or multiple processing cores simultaneously, usually to process a single job as fast as possible.
parallel processing
a processing technique that uses multiple processors or multiple processing cores simultaneously, usually to process a single job as fast as possible.
Because an operating system can _____, you can keep one or more programs open while opening other programs.
multitask
virtual memory
a memory management technique frequently used by operating systems that uses a portion of the computer's hard drive as additional RAM
buffer
an area in RAM or on the hard drive designated to hold input and output on their way into or out of the system.
spooling
the process of placing items in a buffer so they can be retrieved by the appropriate device when needed.
the most common use of buffering and spooling is __________
print spooling
print spooling
allows multiple documents to be sent to the printer at one time and to print, one after the other, in the background while the computer and user are performing other tasks.
personal operating system (desktop operating system)
an operating system designed to be installed on a network server to grant multiple users access to a network and its resources
Change Directory (CD) Command
changes to a new location on the current drive
Drive Command
changes to a new drive
Copy Command
Copies file from one location to another
Directory (DIR) Command
displays the files and folders in the current location
Linux was released to the public as ________
open source software
open source software
programs whose source code is available to the public
utility program
a software program that performs a specific task, usually related to managing or maintaining the computer system
commercial software
a software program that is developed and sold for a profit.
______ is not copyrighted
public domain software
software suite
related software programs (such as a group of graphics programs, utility programs, or office related software) that are sold bundled together
spreadsheet
a group of values and other data organized into rows and comumns, similar to the ruled paper worksheets, traditionally used by bookkeepers and accountants.
DBMS
database management software
bitmap image
a graphic created by coloring the individual pixels in an image
collaboration software
software that enables a group of individuals to work together on a project
hotspot
a location that procides wireless Internet access to the public
local area network (LAN)
a network than connects devices located in a small geographical area
metropolitan area network (MAN)
a network designed to service a metropolitan area
wide area network (WAN)
a network that connects devices located in a large geographical area
simplex transmission
a type of data transmission in which data travels in a single direction only
___ transmission does not use the radio transmission band
IR
TCP
a networking protocol that uses packet writching to facilitate the trransmission of messages; the protocol used with the Internet
bridge
a device used to connect two LANS
repeater
a device on a network that amplifies signals
range extender
a repeater for a wireless network
wireless network
a network in which computers and other divices are connected to the network without physical cables
bus network
a network that uses a central cable to which all network devices are attached
architecture
the way computers are designed to communicate
client
a computer or other device on a networkk that requests and uses network resources