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42 Cards in this Set

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A connection or linkage between the representations of two events (two stimuli or a stimuli and a response) so that the occurrence of one of the events activates the representation of the other
Association
Learning about a specific event or fact, usually accessible to consciousness
Declarative or Episodic Learning
The view of behavior according to which actions can be separated into two categories: voluntary behavior controlled by the mind, and involuntary behavior controlled by reflex mechanisms
Dualism
A philosophy according to which all ideas in the mind arise from experience
Empiricism:
A temporary decrease in behavior caused by repeated or excessive use of the muscles involved in the behavior
Fatigue
The philosophy proposed by Hobbes according to which the actions of organisms are determined entirely by the pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain
Hedonism
An enduring change in the mechanisms of behavior involving specific stimuli and/or responses that result from prior experience with similar stimuli and responses
Learning
A change in behavior caused by physical or physiological development of the organism in the absence of experience with particular environmental events
Maturation
A philosophy according to which human beings are born with innate ideas
Nativism
The philosophical position adopted by Pavlov that all behavioral and physiological processes are regulated by the nervous system
Nervism
A three-letter combination (two consonants separated by a vowel) that has no meaning
Nonsense Syllable
An organism’s activities at a particular time
Performance
Learning ways of doing things rather than learning about specific events. Procedural learning is typically not governed by conscious controlled processes
Procedural Learning
A mechanism that enables a specific environmental event to elicit a specific response
Reflex
Same as Primary Process in the opponent process theory of motivation
a Process
A neuron that transmits messages from sense organs to the central nervous system. Also called Sensory Neuron
Afferent Neuron
Behavior that occurs early in natural behavior sequence and serves to bring the organism in contact with releasing stimulus
Appetitive Behavior
Same as Opponent Process in the opponent process theory of motivation
b Process
Behavior that serves to bring a natural sequence of behavior to consummation or completion. Consummatory responses are usually series-typical modal action patterns
Consummatory Behavior
Reduction in the effectiveness of a drug as a result of repeated use of the drug
Drug Tolerance
A neuron that transmits impulses to muscles. Also called Motor Neuron
Efferent Neuron
The second component of the feeding behavior sequence following general search, in which the organism engages in behavior focused on a particular location or stimulus that is indicative of the presence of food. Focal search is a form of appetitive behavior that is more closely related to food than general search
Focal Search Mode
The last component of the feeding behavior sequence, in which the organism handles and consumes the food. This is similar to what ethologists referred to as Consummatory Behavior
Food Handling Mode
The earliest component of the feeding behavior sequence, in which the organism engages in non-directed locomotor behavior. General search is a form of appetitive behavior
General Search Mode
A progressive decrease in the vigor of elicited behavior that may occur with repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus
Habituation Effect
A neural mechanism activated by repetitions of a stimulus that reduces the magnitude of responses elicited by that stimulus
Habituation Process
A neuron in the spinal cord that transmits impulses from afferent (or sensory) to efferent (or motor) neurons
Interneuron
A response pattern exhibited by most, if not all, members of a species in much the same way. Modal action patterns are used as basic units of behavior in ethological investigations of behavior
Modal Action Pattern (MAP)
See efferent neuron
Motor Neuron
A compensatory mechanism that occurs in response to the primary process elicited by biologically significant events. The opponent process causes physiological and behavioral changes that are the opposite of those caused by the primary process. Also called the b Process
Opponent Process
The first process that is elicited by a biologically significant stimulus. Also called the a Process
Primary Process
Neural structures consisting of the afferent (sensory) neuron, interneuron, and the efferent (motor) neuron that enable a stimulus to elicit a reflex response
Reflex Arc
See sign stimulus
Releasing Stimulus
An increase in the vigor of elicited behavior that may result from repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus or from exposure to strong extraneous stimulus
Sensitization Effect
A neural mechanism that increases the magnitude of responses elicited by repeated or excessive stimulation
Sensitization Process
A temporary reduction in the sensitivity of sense organs caused by repeated or excessive stimulation
Sensory Adaptation
See afferent neuron
Sensory Neuron
A specific feature of an object or animal that elicits a modal action pattern in another organism. Also called Releasing Stimulus
Sign Stimulus
Recovery of s response produced by a period of rest after habituation or extinction
Spontaneous Recovery
The shortest neural pathway that connects the sense organs stimulated by an eliciting stimulus and the muscles involved in making the elicited response
S-R System
Neural structures that determine the general level of responsiveness, or readiness to respond, of the organism
State System
An artificially enlarged or exaggerated sign stimulus that elicits an unusually vigorous response
Supernormal Stimulus