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28 Cards in this Set

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Traditional authority
Rests on established belief in the sanctity of immemorial traditions. That people respect the existing political reality simply because they have been there for prolonged periods. In practice, however, these “old ways of doing things” rest on rather interesting personal ties and relationships. These might exist as forms of patron-client networks or patron-networks, and often corresponds to a notion of patrimonial rule.
Legitimacy
Often defined as the “the right to rule,” but what does that really mean? In democracies the people are believed to be the source of the state’s legitimacy. Thus popular approval of disapproval matters for the elected official. But is this a normative argument or a causal one? Most of history, legitimacy has come from other ways. Monarchies involved inheritance and sometimes a “divine right.” Much of the discussion on legitimacy owes its origins to the sociologist Max Weber, who refers to the basis of authority. He offers three types of legitimacy/leadership: charismatic, traditional, rational-bureaucratic. Legitimate leaders have an easier time to rule because individuals are more likely to comply with their mandates voluntarily than because of fear of coercion. They need not exercise coercive power, but can expect those they rule to comply with their rule as obligatory.
Dominance
Is the maximum degree of political power. It is the power to determine or control political outcomes. But is domination always a good thing?
Influence
A type of power, or a form of power. Influence is the capacity to affect outcomes indirectly or partially. Political influence means the capacity to affect government decisions, actions or behavior without fully controlling them.
First dimension of power
A view of power involving a focus on behavior in the making of decisions on issues over which there is an observable conflict of subjective interests, seen as express policy preferences, revealed by political participation.
Second dimension of power
A view of power involving a focus on agenda setting (i.e. in the clash between an emphasis on job creation and the debt, Congress has control over the second dimension since debt prevailed).
Socially situated
Wartenberg's idea that power relations are often socially situated - this idea goes beyond the specific contexts of the situation but acknowledges that both those with power and those responding to power (the A and B of the dyad) might be acting not only in response to the power each of the members of the dyad have, but how other social actors might influence them.
Negative power relationship
Occurs when the exercise of power by A to compel B to act in a way that A wants actually results in an opposite consequence. For instance, A (the government) may seek to gain control of the economy from B (society) and will try to monopolize control through government intervention. Yet B might seek to evade A by moving into informal markets. Likewise A (the government) may try to compel B (society) to become docile and comply through fear and coercive actions. But A’s actions might also lead B to act in response to A, increasing the level of resistance of B against A.
Masses
The rest of us. Yet this group may itself be divided along differences in identity- gender, ethnic affiliation, economic class, etc. Some people have more power than others and some factions of society (the masses) defined by their identity or relations may have greater power within a society.
Political elites
Those who have prominent positions either in government or in non-government organizations and professions that have a real effect on government actions. This can be further divided between those in government and a secondary elite (those in other sectors who participate in politics) and a political society (those who are daily engaged in politics).
Zero-Sum
We are faced with the interesting question of whether power really is zero-sum. Does the gain in power of one actor entail the loss of it in others?
Power
The capacity to effect outcomes. From Physics we know that power can be both potential and kinetic. It could exist as the ability to deliver an event or in the delivery of that event. Power is not equally divided but subject to the types of resources and abilities that the actor possesses. Power may take on many dimensions, as well (Lukes).
Charismatic authority
Attaches to certain uniquely magnetic or inspiring leaders and rests on the devotion of his followers to the leaders extraordinary sanctity, heroism or exemplary character. These charismatic leaders are often perceived as supermen or supernatural figures. However, this is often a very unstable from of authority, dependent on the leader. i.e. Hitler, Mao Zedong, Benito Mussolini
Rational-Legal authority
The belief in the legality of rules and in the right of those who occupy positions according to those rules to issue commands.
Democracy
Does it mean rule by law or rule by the majority?
Autocracy
Often means one person rule. One individual has supreme authority over the state.
Oligarchy
Rule by a few. A small group of leaders rule the country. The Soviet Union after Stalin. Communist China?
Totalitarianism
A form of authoritarianism in which the government’s domination of politics, the economy and society is nearly total. Individuals have few freedoms.
Popular Sovereignty
The belief that sovereign power comes for the people and their consent to be governed. Yet, this has not always been true.
Democratic Elitism
The idea that modern democratic governments are managed by political elites who are accountable to the masses. Plato’s the Republic favored the creation of a ruling class of governors.
The danger of masses
Masses have often voted for rather non-liberal leaders. Nazis, Communists and Islamic dictatorships have been voted into office.
Corruption
The illegal or sometimes unethical use of a political position to provide special advantages for individuals or groups.
Torture
Abuse of power or an exercise of power?
Hidden transcripts
The way people truly feel in response to power. Rarely do we “speak truth to power” simply because it is not the rational thing to do. We are indoctrinated into ways to respond to different power relations. But this doesn’t mean that the weaker acquiesces, rather that the subordinate resists in often quiet ways. He will harbor grievance but will hide his true feelings behind a mask of acceptance and compliance, even as he thinks and often acts in ways that challenge the dominant status quo.
Public transcripts
The way people are supposed to respond to power.
Third Dimension
The power of Ideas and behavior itself, Norms and Values.
Pluralism
Perhaps the most mainstream of views. Pluralists often argue that there is not a dominant class or a set of institutionally based elites that has predominant power. Although there are great inequalities in power and wealth, but they are disbursed among several groups. This means there is "polyarchy," not a hierarchy. Different groups have power on different issues.
Civil society
The collection of organized groups that are distinct from government and from business and are larger than families. Note that Drogus & Orvis suggest that civil society is non-violent. But we have many groups in society that are not government nor economic but have engaged in violence or advocate violence.