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28 Cards in this Set

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Adult literacy
The percentage of the population that can read and write.
behavioral movement
A change in comparative political scientists' approach to the subject after World War II that emphasized processes as well as institutions, explaining as well as describing, and taking a more scientific approach to the development of theory and method.
comparative method
A method of analysis by which different cases are systematically studied in order to test hypotheses, build theories, and develop concepts
comparative politics
One of the major branches of the academic study of politics, involving the systematic study of the differences and similarities between and among political systems, with the goal of understanding those systems and of making generalizations and drawing up rules about politics.
Corruption Perception Index
A comparative index by Transparency International that uses information gathered from business, banks, foundations, and other independent institutions to rank countries' levels of corruption.
Democracy Index
A newer comparative ranking system by The Economist that gives countries a score out of 10 based on 60 different indicators grouped into five categories: electoral processes, protection for civil liberties, the efficient functioning of government, patterns of political participation, and the strength and depth of political culture.
Economic Freedom Index
A comparative measure of economic policies developed by Fraser Institute that scores countries from 1 to 10, with 10 being freest, according to such factors as the size of government income and spending, how the law protects people and property, monetary policies, and trade policies.
empirical
An approach of study which tries to explain how things are by arguing a relationship between two or more concepts
ethnocentrism
A view of the world based on a belief in the cultural or ethnic superiority of the observer and of the culture or race to which he or she belongs.
Freedom in the World index
A comparative index by Freedom House that categorizes countries according to their records on political rights and civil liberties. It divides countries into three groups—Free, Partly Free, and Not Free—and gives them scores of 1 to 7 on the scales of political rights and civil liberties.
Governance Indicators
A comparative index by the World Bank with six measures of democratic performance: voice and accountability, political stability, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, the rule of law, and the control of corruption.
gross domestic product (GDP)
The basic measure of economic output of a country, expressed as the sum value (in U.S. dollars) of the final goods and services produced within the borders of a country.
Human Development Index (HDI)
A comparative ranking of social conditions developed by the United Nations that rates human development as high, medium, or low based on life expectancy, adult literacy, educational enrollment, and per capita GDP.
Infant mortality
The number of newborn babies that die within 30 days of birth, expressed as a figure of 1,000 live births.
legitimacy
The idea that the power of government is exercised with the approval and recognition of the governed, and within the limits of the rule of law.
Life expectancy
The age to which the average resident of a country can expect to live.
nation
A cultural concept describing a group of people sharing a common cultural heritage, language, customs, and traditions, and usually inhabiting a fixed territory.
normative
An approach of study looking at how things ought to be
per Capita GDP
GDP divided by a countries population, giving a better idea of the relative economic wealth of different countries for comparative purposes.
political culture
The political norms and values of a society. Political culture helps explain what citizens and leaders regard as acceptable or unacceptable behavior.
political goods
The core responsibilities, obligations, and duties of government, or the functions and purposes for which governments exist.
politics
The process by which individuals compete for power and resources and by which competing interests are reconciled. Sometimes described as the process that determines who gets what, when, and how.
purchasing power parity
A different method of calculating the GDP or GNP of a country, by which the total is expressed not in absolute terms but according to the purchasing power of the national currency.
sovereignty
An attribute possessed by a person or institution, giving them power over a particular constituency. In the United States, sovereignty is shared by the three major arms of government. In parliamentary systems, sovereignty rests largely with the legislature. All states have sovereignty over the lands within their borders (provided the states are recognized in international law).
state
One of the most hotly debated concepts in political science. Generally connotes a community of individuals living within recognized frontiers, adhering to a common body of law, and coming under the jurisdiction of a common government. Also used to describe collectively the officials, laws, and powers of that community.
Three Worlds system
A system of studying comparative politics that divided the world into three groups of countries: A First World of wealthy, democratic industrialized states; a Second World of communist regimes; and a Third World of poorer, less democratic, and less developed countries. This system was largely based on cold war assumptions about the structure of the international system.
typology
A system of classification that divides states into groups with common features, allowing comparativists to make broad assumptions about the states in each group
Westphalian system
The modern state system that many believe emerged out of the 1648 Peace of Westphalia