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88 Cards in this Set

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Positive
concerned with “what is,” fact based, objective
Normative
concerned with “what should be,” opinion based, subjective
Political System
a state and all related institutions
State
an entity with the legitimacy and capacity to govern a specific geographical area
Nation
a group of people with a common identity
Ethnicity
a group of people with belief in a common ancestor/ belief that they are broadly related
Nationstate
entity with legitimacy/capacity governs a group of people with a common identity
National
over the nation
subnational
dealing with sub governmental unit of a state
international
dealing with multiple nations, like un
Positive
concerned with “what is,” fact based, objective
Normative
concerned with “what should be,” opinion based, subjective
Political System
a state and all related institutions
State
an entity with the legitimacy and capacity to govern a specific geographical area
Nation
a group of people with a common identity
Ethnicity
a group of people with belief in a common ancestor/ belief that they are broadly related
Nationstate
entity with legitimacy/capacity governs a group of people with a common identity
National
over the nation
subnational
dealing with sub governmental unit of a state
international
dealing with multiple nations, like un
supranational
above national level, like eu
StructuralFunctional Approach to Institutional Analysis
framework of looking at political systems that allows one to analyze and compare structures without assuming similar functions of those structures
Political Culture
the attitudes, values and norms a society has towards politics; a people’s orientation towards politics; set of attitudes and practices that shape political behavior
Congruence Theory
how cultural patterns relate to what type of political process citizens expects of the government
At core, what does it mean to be authoritarian?
Fails at least one aspect of the democracy test. political system that denies civil liberties but does uphold civil rights. denial of self governance
Monarchy
governed by king/queen/monarch
Oligarchy
governed by elite
Military Dictatorship
governed by military force
Totalitarian
denies civil liberties, self governance, AND civil rights
Authoritarian Corporatist Interest Group System
controlled institutional interest group system
Who is not democratic
Jordan (major decision makers do not affect policy)Egypt (?), China (only one party to vote for), Burkina Faso (corruption)
Definition: At core what is the point of democratic governance?
Self governance & self determination
Elements: Explain each component of the democracy test; How does your country fare?
Vote policy nexus, major DM elected, free/fair/competitive elections, universal adult suffrage, some protection for human rights
Pluralist
competitive, open, (like US), most organized=most successful
Dem Corp
peak organizations have leaders that are close to government, literally sit down & negotiate with gov leaders
Anomic
(reactionary)
Associational
organized (what traditionally thought of NAACP, NRI, etc)

Nonassociational
less organized, lots of free riders that benefit even if not actively involved
Institutional
based in formal organizations w other functions
Civil Society
society with citizens able to have political action and conversation without government interference, matters because it is an important check on democracy to ensure a country is acting to the interest of the citizens
Pres Unitary Executive (Head of State & Head of Government, relation to cabinet) –
functions as both head of gov & state, more casual relation to cabinet, in charge of cabinet, appoints members to cabinet (cabinet members are ceremonial head of bureaucratic branches)
Pres Separation of Powers:
branches of gov act independently of each other but are dependent on the others to get things done, ensures power does not collect in one place
Pres Checks and Balance
ability of branches to make sure other branches do not gain too much or abuse powers
Pres fixed Term
limit on years of service of many elected positions
Parl Plural Executive (PM & Cabinet Relations)
prime minister, head of government
Parl Structural Interdependence between legislature and executive
same thing, same constituents, act in interest of each other
Parl Dissolution Power & Confidence Relationship
pm & cabinet act in confidence relationship, cabinet can have vote of no confidence to get pm to step down while pm is able to dissolve legislature
Parl Government of the day
the “government” or ruling body/cabinet of the current term
Parl Head of state v. Head of Government
head of state= ceremonial head of gov=functional
Majoritarian
party with majority can act unchecked for the most part; consensual has institutional mechanisms to restrain “mere majority”
Electoral, Party, and Interest Group Systems
SMDP(m) v PR(c), plurality (m) v corporatist (c), two party (m) v multi
party (c).
Concentration of Power (Unitary v. Federal; Centralized v. Decentralized Administration), Legislative Structure, Written Constitution, and Judicial Independence/Review
Unitary (m)/federal (c), central (m)/decentral (c), legislative unicameral (m)/bicameral (c), no constitution (m), yes constitution (c), judicial no (m), judicial yes ©
Duverger’s Law
regularity that states SMDP systems tend to have 2 party systems, PR tends to have multiparty
Median Voter Result
median voters determine election bc in smdp, 2 party systems either left or right & will reach more towards median voters to gain majority
Comparative Economic Policy Definition
value of all final goods/products produced in a year
GDP Components
Consumption, Gov Expenditures, Investment, Net Exports
Why we use GDP
to measure growth
Political Ideology Definition & Function
function to give philosophical platform for thinking about what/how/why government functions
Left/Right Paradigm
the dichotomous space in which some culture (like the US) thinks about political parties, came about during french revolution’s alliance to the king (right) or revolutionaries (left)
Political Parties: Family Clusters
clusters occur in multiparty systems where there may be groups of similar parties that cluster together in likemindedness yet have separate policy goals
Rentier State
State in which majority of revenue comes from the “rent” of internal resources to external clients
How is UK a multinational state?
Covers nations of Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, England

Democratization of UK
Between 1850 and 1928, but rly 1918 when women got to vote
Major Parties of UK
labor, conservative, liberal democratic
Coalition Government –
when largest portion of vote still is not majority, so party with largest vote forms coalition with smaller party to have a majority
UK, Unitary yet decentralized? Devolution? –
is unitary because although gov has significantly devolved powers down to lower governmental subunits, power of those subunits is not guaranteed & can be taken back by gov anytime
UK, Question Time
weekly practice where parliament has an open forum to ask prime minister questions, usually entails opposition trying to make prime minister look stupid, holds the purpose of holding PM accountable for having knowledge of policy & current government, keeping people aware that their leader is competent

UK, Bicameral? –
UK has a bicameral legislature but functions as a unicameral legislature. House of Lords very rarely exercises power & typically rubber stamps
UK, Rigid written Constitution? Judicial Review? Parliamentary Sovereignty?
No formal written constitution, more a compilation of traditions and regular laws passed by parliament. Parliament is supreme & there is not a court for judicial review, high court only interprets law.
US, What make America exceptional? –

was the first to introduce federalism & a written constitution. “a new world order”

US, Democratization –
over stages, but typically when universal adult suffrage was law, or 1919 with 19th amendment
US, Major Parties
republican, democrat
US, Electoral College
group of electors from the senators+representatives, casts votes for their region
Us, Federalism, Define
power of subnational governmental units is locked in by written constitution
US, Always federal? –

No, was originally confederal (under Articles of Confederation) before this was deemed as not working

US, Intergovernmental relations over time
state vs national government still clash significantly over powers
US, Bicameralism
House & Senate
US, Rigid written Constitution? Judicial Review? Parliamentary Sovereignty?
Yes, rigid written constitution. Yes, judicial review. No, parliamentary sovereignty bc no parliament + separation of power/checks & balances
In what ways does Australia show its dual UK/US influence?
Written constitution (US), parliamentary system (UK), bicameral legislature (UK&US) but government of day comes from lower house (UK)
AUS Democratization
Women could vote by 1908, could be in parliament by 1923, aboriginals were restricted from vote until 1962
AUS Major Parties
Labor & Liberal/National Coalition
AUS Confidence Relationship and Indirect Accountability in action
Gov of day is very reactive to will of the people, indirect accountability & confidence relationship between cabinet & PM shown by the swapping of Kevin Rudd to Julia Gillard back to Kevin Rudd in attempt to regain liking of the people
AUS Federalism and Centralization?
Federal because power of subnational units is guaranteed, but functions very unitarily and centralized
Preferential Voting System
Variation of PR used in the senate where citizens vote by ranking preference of candidates. Seats are filled by quotas .. some get struck out if not enough votes .. if someone votes for person who is struck out, votes move down the list in order of preference
AUS, Rigid written Constitution? Judicial Review? Parliamentary Sovereignty?
Written constitution yes, but operates on conventions because Australia does not find that the constitution necessarily applies towards how the government functions as of today . Judicial review, yes? Parliamentary sovereignty, no?
Judiciary
Judicial Power, The most important of these, the Kerr Report, recommended the establishment of a general administrative tribunal which could review administrative decisions on the merits, codification and procedural reform of the system of judicial review, and the creation of an office of Ombudsman. These proposals were put into practice with the passing of the Administrative Decisions (Judicial Review) Act 1977; the Administrative Appeals Tribunal Act 1975; the Freedom of Information Act (now Government Information (Public Access) Act 2009 No 52 1982); and the Ombudsman Act 1976.
Judicial Independence
(?)

Three waves of democracy?

Jacksonian, post WWII decolonization, 1970s to 2000s