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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
-Illustration:
a story or anecdote that provides an example of an idea, issue, or problem a speaker is discussing
Brief Illustration:
an unelaborated example no longer than a sentence or two
Extended Illustrations:
• longer and more detailed example; more vividly descriptive; more dramatic and emotionally appealing
Hypothetical Illustration:
an example that might happen but that has not actually occurred
How to use Illustrations Effectively:
make illustrations relevant; choose one that represents a trend; vivid and specific; use those that listeners can identify with; best illustrations are personal
Description:
- a word picture of something
•-Explanation:
a statement that makes clear how something is done or why it exists in its present form or existed in its past form
-In your examples you must?
describe, explain how, effectively describe & explain
Explaining Why:
explaining why involves giving reasons for one or more consequences of a policy, principle, or event. Often having explained causes or reasons, a speaker can then tailor a solution to those specific causes.
Using Descriptions and Explanations Effectively:
• Keep your descriptions and explanations brief – an explanation should supply only as many details as necessary.
• Use language that is specific and concrete as possible – vivid and specific language brings your descriptions and explanations alive which helps hold the audience’s attention.
• Avoid too much description and explanations – you can hold your audience’s attention more effectively if you alternate explanations and descriptions with other types of supporting material.
Definitions – have 2 justifiable uses in speeches:
1. A speaker should be sure to define any and all specialized, technical, or litte-known term.
a. Definition by Classification – dictionary definition that placing the term in the general class, group, or family to which it belongs and then differentiating it from all other members of that class.
2. A speaker may define a term by showing how it works or how it is applied in a specific instance.
a. Operational Definitions – a statement that shows how something works or what it does.
Using Definitions Effectively:
• Use a definition only when needed
• Be certain that your definition is understandable
• Be certain that your definition and your use of a term are consistent throughout a speech.
Analogy – is a comparison between 2 things
• Literal Analogy –
compares things that are actually similar (2 sports, 2 cities)
o These work well when speaking to a culture or group different from your own.
• Figurative Analogy – make take the form of a simile or a metaphor
o Not considered hard evidence, but rather grabs an audience’s attention.
Using Analogies Effectively:
• Be sure that the two things you compare in a literal analogy are very similar
• be sure that the essential similarity between the two objects of a figurative analogy is readily apparent.
Statistics –
numerical data that summarizes facts or samples
• Use statistics as support – one statistic that represents hundreds or thousands of people is very persuasive.
Use Statistics Effectively:
• Use reliable sources
o Reputable
o Authoritative
 Primary Source – the original collector and interpreter of information or data.
 Secondary Source – an individual, organization, or publication that reports information or data gathered by another entity.
o Unbiased
• Interpret statistics accurately
• Make your statistics understandable and memorable
• Round off numbers
• Use visual aids to present your statistics
Opinion –
a statement expressing an individual’s attitudes, beliefs, or values. (3 types)
I. Expert Testimony
a. Defined: An opinion offered by someone who is an authority on a topic
b. Useful when your topic requires making predictions
c. Example: using a quote from a National Heart Association advisor during a speech on the prominence of heart disease
II. Lay Testimony
a. Defined: an opinion/description offered by a non-expert who hast 1st hand experience
b. Good for triggering audience emotion
III. Literary Quotations
a. Defined: a poetic or memorable opinion/description by a writer
b. Appeals to the intelligence of listeners
IV. Using Opinions Effectively
a. Be certain that the authority you cite is an expert on the subject you’re talking about
i. Make sure the authority is an expert in the actual topic you are speaking about as well
b. Make sure to identify your sources
c. Cite unbiased authorities
i. Unbiased authorities are the most reliable sources of opinion
d. Quote sources accurately
e. Use literary quotations sparingly
i. Too many can bore the audience and cause them to doubt your creativity
There are 6 types of supporting material:
I. Magnitude – larger numbers make for better statistics, and more experts testimony will get audience’s attention
II. Proximity – good supporting material is info that is relevant to listeners. “close to home”
III. Concreteness – use concrete examples/statistics when discussing principles/theories
IV. Variety – use a mix of illustrations, opinions, definitions, and statistics; no variety will cause audience to lose interest
V. Humor – almost always appropriate, except with really somber topics
VI. Suitability – your final decision about whether or not to use a piece of supporting material. Is it suitable to you, your speech, your audience?