Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/36

Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Carbohydrates contain:

C, H and O

Glucose, fructose and galactose are all:

monosaccharides

Maltose, lactose and sucrose are all:

disaccharides

Starch and glycogen are both

polysaccharides

What are some reducing carbohydrates?

Glucose,maltose, fructose, lactose, galactose

Name a nonreducing carbohydrate.

Sucrose

The nervous system can't store or concentrate glucose so it depends on glucose from the _______.

ECF

Glucose is stored as:

glycogen

Glucose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate in a process catalyzed by the enzyme:

hexokinase

Glucose-6-phosphate is broken down to pyruvic acid in which pathway?

Embden-Meyerhof

Glucose-6-phosphate is converted to glucose-1-phosphate, then glycogen in which pathway?

Hexose monophosphate

What is the name of the process by which glycerol, lactate, and pyruvate and converted to glucose?

gluconeogenesis

What is the name of the process by which glucose is converted to pyruvate or lactate?

Glycolysis

What is the name of the process by which glycogen is converted back to glucose-6-phosphate?

Glycogenolysis

What is the primary hormone responsible for entry of glucose into cells?

insulin

Insulin is synthesized by:

Beta cells of the islets ofLangerhans in pancreas

Insulin is released when glucose is:

high

What is the primary hormoneresponsible for increasing glucose level?

glucagon

Glucagon is synthesized by:

alpha cells of the isletsof Langerhans in the pancreas

Which hormones decrease glucose levels?

insulin

Which hormones increase glucose levels?

glucagon, epinephrine,glucocorticoids, growth hormone, ACTH, thyroxine

What are the lab findings in hyperglycemia?

Increasedglucose in plasma and urine, increase urine specific gravity, increase serumand urine osmolality, ketones in serum and urine, decreased blood and urine pH,electrolyte imbalance

A group of metabolic diseasescharacterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion,insulin action, or both are known as:

diabetes mellitus

Type I DM is caused by:

destruction of Beta cells,resulting in an absolute deficiency of insulin; genetic

Ketoacidosis is seen in:

Type I DM

Ketones are formed from:

the oxidation of fatty acids

Type II diabetes is caused by:

dysfunctional insulinreceptors leading to a relative insulin deficiency

In ______________________, fetal insulin secretion isstimulated in the neonate of a mother with diabetes; when the infant is bornand umbilical cord is cut, the infant’s oversupply of glucose is abruptlyterminated, causing severe hypoglycemia

gestational diabetes

Criteria for testing for pre-diabetes/diabetes includes:

,Familyhistory, Race/ethnicity(African American, Latino, Native American), Signsof insulin resistance (acanthosis nigricans, hypertension, dyslipidemia, PCOS), Maternalhistory

Hypoglycemia symptoms appear when glucose levels reach:

50-55 mg/dL

Von-Gierke disease is a deficiency in:

glucose-6-phosphate

What is the reference method for glucose?

hexokinase

What method does the Clinitest use?

Copper reduction

Which test provides clinician withtime-averaged picture of patient’s blood glucose concentration over past 3months?

GlycosylatedHemoglobin/Hemoglobin A1c

CSF glucose should be about __________% of the blood glucose level

60-70%

If the CSF glucose is decreased and protein increased, the patient likely has:

bacterial meningitis