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224 Cards in this Set

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Separation is applied between ___of the targets?

Center
Radar separation shall be applied to all RNAV aircraft...
On random routes at or below FL450
When can you apply radar separation?
Between radar identified aircraft

If ____is in the data block

do not use information in the data block for either radar or non radar separation.,CST or FRZN
What is radar separation at or above FL600
10 miles
What is radar separation Below FL600
5 miles
What is radar separation Below FL180 and within 40 miles of the antenna
3 miles if specified in FD
Separation required when transitioning from terminal to enroute?
3 miles increasing to 5 miles or greater provided: diverging or lead is faster, sep is constant or increasing, 5 miles or other appropriate separation is obtained within the first center sector, procedure is covered in an LOA and limited to specific routes and or sector positions
Separation with the A388 and B748
5 miles behind, 10 when transitioning to terminal, no visual separation (include the expression SUPER immediately after the a/c callsign in communications with terminal facility or traffic advisories
Wake turbulence standard sep applies when?
Directly behind and less than 1,000 ft below or following an aircraft conducting an instrument apch (and takes precedence over 3 mile separation)
WT Heavy behind heavy
(4)
WT Large/heavy behind a B757
(4)
WT Small behind a B757
(5)
WT Small/large behind heavy
(5)
Separate aircraft from obstructions by...
5 miles
Separate aircraft from adjacent airspace by:
Below FL600- 2.5 radar controller/5 non radar controlled, At and above FL600-5 radar controller/10 non radar controlled
Separate aircraft from SUA and ATCAA by:
Involving aircraft operations- Below FL600- 3 miles, At and above FL600-6 miles, At and Below FL290- 500 ft, Above FL290 1,000: Not involving aircraft operations-Aircraft must just avoid airspace
Formations flight separation.
Standared-1 mile, Two flights- 2 miles, Non standard- apply appropriate minima from the parameter of the airspace encompassing the flight from the outermost aircraft (beacon codes if need be)
Give equal priority to...
Separating aircraft and issuing safety alerts (perform the action most critical from a safety standpoint)
Once observed and recognized
issue a safety alert when an aircraft is...,In a position which places it in unsafe proximity to terrain, obstructions, or other aircraft
Do not assume that because another controller has responsibility for the aircraft that the unsafe situation has been observed and that the safety alert has been issued....
Inform the appropriate controller (coordination is not required when immediate action is dictated
When can you discontinue further alerts?
When the pilot informs you that action is being taken to resolve the unsafe situation
What are the origins of alerts?
En route minimum safe altitude warning, automatic altitude readouts, conflict alert/mode C intruder, pilot reports
What is a conflict alert?
A function of certain air traffic control automated systems designed to alert radar controllers to existing or pending situations between tracked targets (known IFR and VFR) that require immediate attention/action
Define mode C intruder.
A function of certain air traffic control automated systems designed to alert radar controllers to existing or pending situations between a tracked target (known IFR or VFR) that require immediate attention/action
When would you issue a traffic altert and what would you issue?
Immediately when a known conflict with other aircraft exists, Offer alternate course of action if feasible and end the transition with the word immediately

When will a full data block flash?

When targets are within a predetermined parameter of each other and less than minimum vertical separation exists (alert is based on mode C readout or controller reported altitude there fore timely altitude updates are imperative)
Why should you not rely totally on computerized alert?
May activate late or wont activate unless altitude is known
What does it mean when a controller suppressed/restored the alert?
Constitutes controller acknowledgment and indicates appropriate action has been or will be taken
Define altitude readout.
An aircrafts altitude transmitted via the mode C transponder feature that is visually displayed in 100ft increments on a radar display having readout capabilities
When must you ensure validity of each aircraft?
After: accepting an inter-facility handoff, initial track start, track start from a coast/suspended tabular list, missing or unreasonable mode C readouts
Whose responsibility is validating mode C?
Shared responsibility of the radar team
Can a previously validated mode C be used for separation when the exceptional rate indicator "X" is displayed?
Yes
When is a readout considered valid?
Varies less than 300 ft from pilot reported altitude or you receive a continuous readout from an aircraft on the airport and there read out varies by less than 300 ft from the airport elevations or verbal coordination with another facility with validated altitude information shows exact correlation between you data block and theirs
What do you do if you are unable to validate the read out?
Do not use mode C information for separation
What do you do when you observe an invalid mode C readout below FL180?
Instruct the pilot to turn off altitude reporting part of transponder and include the reason, Notify area supervisor-in-charge of the aircraft callsign
What should be done before allowing an aircraft who has lost altitude reporting capability into another controllers class A airspace?
Verbal approval required

When do you not have to request a pilot to confirm assigned altitude on initial contact?

Pilot states assigned altitude or you assign a new altitude to a climbing or descending aircraft, or mode C readout is valid and indicates that the aircraft is established at the assigned altitude

How do you inform an aircraft to turn the automatic altitude reporting feature on or off?

SQUAWK ALTITUDE or STOP SQUAWK ALTITUDE
Do all aircraft have the ability to disengage altitude squawk independently from beacon code squawk?
No some are controlled by the same switch and you may loose beacon code
Define Vector.
A heading issued to an aircraft to provide navigational guidance by radar
What are reasons for vectoring?
Separation (other aircraft or airspace), Safety (around skydiving activities)
Define MIA
Minimum IFR altitude- in designated mountainous areas 2,000 ft above the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 4 NM from the course being flown, other than mountainous areas 1,000 ft above the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 4 NM from the course being flown, or as otherwise specified by the admin or assigned by ATC
MVA.
Minimum vectoring altitude- lowest msl altitude at which an IFR aircraft will be vectored by a radar controller except as authorized for radar approaches departures and missed approaches. May only be utilized from radar vectoring when upon the controllers determination that an adequate radar return is being received from the aircraft
Vector aircraft at or above ___ or ___.
MVA or MIA
When can you vector an IFR aircraft?
Within controlled airspace, at or above the appropriate minimum altitude, within your area of jurisdiction unless otherwise coordinated, permitted to resume its own navigation within radar coverage
What must be specified in a vector?
Direction of the turn if appropriate and a magnetic heading to be flow , Number of degrees, in group form, to turn and direction of turn
When flight data processing is available
update the route of flight in the computer unless:,Operational advantage is gained or coordination is accomplished
When must the controller advise the pilot of the reason for the vector? And what should be advised?
When initiating the vector, What to expect when the vector is completed
What factors should be considered when determining the appropriate heading?
Wind, weather, traffic, pilot requests
Ensure what if it is needed for spacing or separation?
Aircrafts heading by assigning it (don't assume an aircraft will continue on the same track without a heading assignment)
When should you allow for increased compliance time and distance?
When the aircraft is at a higher altitude and greater speed
What are some good vectoring techniques?
Utilize minimum heading changes and turn slower aircraft behind faster aircraft if both are similar distances from converging points
Consider what to obtain a desired track?
Effects of wind, ground speed, and turning distance
What do you do when an emergency exists or is imminent?
Pursue the most appropriate course of action (conform as nearly as possible to instructions in .65) report immediately to supervisor
An emergency can be defined as either ___ or ___.
Distress- a condition of being threatened by serious and or imminent danger and of requiring immediate assistance, Urgency- a condition of being concerned about and of requiring timely but not immediate assistance-a potential distress condition
Define May Day repeated 3 times
Distress condition
Define Pan Pan repeated 3 times
Urgency condition
What do you do if these phases are not used and you are unsure that a situation constitutes an emergency?
Handle it as though it were an emergency (most emergencies are declared in plain language by the pilot)
Obtain enough information to handle the emergency ___
Intelligently and base your decision as to what type of assistance is needed on the information and requests from the pilot who is authorized to determine a course of action
Consider an emergency to exist when any of the following occurs:
Emergency is declaredby pilot, facility personnel, officials responsible for operation of the aircraft, There is an unexpected loss of radar contact and radio communications with IFR or VFR aircraft, Reports indicate- forced landing has been made or is imminent, crew has abandoned that aircraft or is about to do so, Emergency radar beacon response has been received (7700), Need for ground rescue appears likely, ELT signal is heard or reported
When pilot requests or controller deems necessary
enlist services of:,Available radar facilities, military
What is the ARTCC responsible for in an emergency?
Receiving and relaying all pertinent ELT signal information to appropriate authorities
What is FSS's responsibility in am emergency situation?
Serves as a central point for collecting and disseminating information on overdue or missing VFR aircraft, Must notify the center about VFR aircraft emergency to allow provision of IFR separation if necessary
What is the responsibility of the facility in communication with the aircraft in distress?
Handle the emergency, Coordinate and direct activities of assisting facilities, May transfer responsibility to another facility only if better handling will result
What is the controllers responsibility?
Forward data about the aircraft in distress to the center whose area the emergency exists, When a foreign carrier is involved notify the ARTCC serving the departure or destination airports when either point is in the US for relay to aircraft operator
All pertinent ELT signal information shall be forwarded to the appropriate authorities by the?
ARTCC
When should you start providing assistance?
When enough information has been obtained upon which to act
What are the minimum information requirements to handle an emergency?
A/C ID, nature of the emergency, pilots desires
After initiating action
obtain what from the pilot as necessary?,Altitude, fuel remaining n time, pilot reported weather, pilot capability for IFR flight, heading since last known position, airspeed, navigational equipment capability, NAVAID signals received, visible land marks, aircraft color, number of people on board, point of departure and destination, emergency equipment on board
When should you request the aircrafts position?
Pilot has not given this information, aircraft is not visually sighted or displayed on the radar
What are the emergency frequencies?
121.5 and 243.0
What frequency should an emergency aircraft be on?
Keep aircraft on initial contact frequency. Change frequency only when there is a valid reason
When an aircraft is not radar identified and declares an emergency assign a code of?
7700
What should be considered when recommending an emergency airport?
Remaining fuel in relation to airport distance, Weather conditions, Airport conditions, NAVAID status, Aircraft type, Pilots qualifications, Vectoring or homing capability to the emergency airport, Information derived from any automated emergency airport information
Coordinate all efforts possible to assist any aircraft believed to be..?
Overdue, lost, or in emergency status
What are some examples of unusual situations?
Volcano ash clouds, VFR aircraft in weather difficulty, bird strike, other non routine events
What should you do when an ELT is heard or reported?
Notify supervisor (sup initiated coordination), obtain any pertinent information such as time, altitude, location etc, solicit assistance of other aircraft operating in the signal area
When should you consider an aircraft overdue and issue an ALNOT?
Neither communications nor radar contact can be established and 30 minutes have passed since (ETA over specified or compulsory reporting point in your area or clearance limit in your area OR clearance void time)
What should you do if you have reason to believe an aircraft is over due prior to 30 minutes?
Take appropriate action immediately (center whose area the aircraft is first overdue/unreported will make this determination)
What happens to IFR traffic that could be affected by an overdue or unreported aircraft?
Must be restricted or suspended unless radar separation is used, Facility must restrict/suspend IFR aircraft for a period of 30 mins following (time at which approach clearance was delivered to pilot, EFC time delivered to pilot, Arrival time over NAVAID serving destination airport, Current estimate facility or pilot whichever is later (appropriate en route NAVAID or fix, NAVAID serving destination airport, Release time and if issued clearance void time))
In addition to routing to the regional office operations center for the area in which the facility is located
you also must_____ for an overdue/unreported aircraft?,Issue and ALNOT to all ARTCCs 50 miles either side of the route of flight from last reported position to the destination
When is an ALNOT cancelled?
The aircraft has been located or search has been abandoned
When is normal air traffic control resumed?
After the 30 minute suspension has expired if operators or pilots of other aircraft concur (concurrence must be maintained for 30 minutes after the suspension period has expired
What is done when communications fail?
Air traffic control is based on anticipated pilot action, Use all appropriate means available to reestablish communications with the aircraft
What can be done to reestablish communications?
NAVAID voice features, Flight services stations, Other aircraft, Aeronautical Radio Incorporated ARINC, Emergency frequency if warranted)
Request aircraft to acknowledge clearances and answer questions by?
Squawk ident, squawk 7600, squaw other than appropriate stratum code, squawk stand by (allow sufficient time to ensure change was caused by pilot action), Radar associate controller may also coordinate with other controllers to re establish communications
What should be done if communications have not been established or re established after 5 minutes?
Consider the aircrafts activity to be possibly suspicious, Notify your supervisor who will give further instructions
What should you expect the pilot to do in the event of communications failure? Route wise
Squawk 7600, If VFR- precedes VFR and land as soon as practicable (either when failure occurs or VFR is encountered), IFR during a Vector- proceed IFR via routing last assigned, direct to fix route or airway specified in vector clearance, In absence of an assigned route in IFR- routing advised to expect in a further clearance, Absence of assigned and expected route- route filed in flight plan
What should you expect the pilot to do in the event of communications failure? Altitude wise
Maintain the highest of the following altitudes for the route segment being flown (last assigned, MIA, altitude/FL ATC advised to expect)
What should you expect the pilot to do in the event of communications failure? After clearance limit
Depart clearance limit: If an approach fix- as close as possible to either EFC or ETA, Other than approach fix- EFC or upon arrival at the fix so as to commence approach as close as possible to ETA
What should you expect the pilot to do in the event of communications failure? To re establish communications
Attempt to reestablish communications with FSS or ARINC or on previously assigned frequency and monitor the NAVAID voice feature
What is the difference between handling air carriers and GA aircraft in bad weather?
Air carriers can generally handle encounters with adverse weather much better than GA, air carriers are expected to handle a certain amount of in-flight weather phenomena where as GA are expected to avoid hazardous weather and exit the conditions ASAP

What advantages do air carrier pilots and aircraft have over GA?

2 pilots, more experience in bad weather Must meet their equipage and engineering standards, airborne weather radar (is not as good as ground radar), de-icing and anti-icing equipment
Provide additional services to the extent possible contingent only upon what?
Higher priority duties, limitations to radar, volume of traffic, frequency congestion, controller workload, Additional services include weather dissemination

What are ATC responsibilities in regards to weather?

Be familiar with weather conditions when coming on duty and stay aware while on duty, advise pilot of hazardous weather that may impact operations within 150 NM of their sector, solicit PIREPS, relay PIREPS in a timely manner, relay all operationally significant PIREPS to the facility weather coordinator
When must you solicit PIREPS?
When requested or weather is or is forecast to be: Ceilings at or below 5000 ft (include base and top) Visibility at or less than 5 miles (surface and aloft) Thunderstorms and related phenomena Turbulence (moderate or greater) Icing (light or greater) Wind shear Volcanic ash clouds
What would be considered an URGENT PIREP?
Tornados, funnel clouds, waterspouts, Severe or extreme turbulence (including CAT), Severe icing, Hail, Low level wind shear (within 2,000 ft of surface), Volcanic eruptions and volcanic ash clouds, Any other weather phenomena reported which are considered by you to be hazardous or potentially hazardous to flight operations
What must the controller do when a PIREP is received?
Record, classify and disseminate when any of the above conditions are reported
What should be recorded with a PIREP?
Time, aircraft position, aircraft type, altitude, icing type/intensity and air temp in which icing is occuring
Who should you relay PIREPs to in a timely manner?
All concerned aircraft and weather coordinator
What is done with urgent PIREPs?
Immediately broadcasted over the frequency and distributed via local and national directives, As a radar associate you are responsible to immediately ensure that urgent PIREPS are forwarded to facility weather coordinator by passing the information to your supervisor and then verbally coordinating with other sectors/facilities that may be affected by the hazardous weather
Define Urgent PIREP.
Weather phenomenon reported by a pilot which represents a hazard or a potential hazard to flight operations
What should be issued when giving weather information?
Pertinent information observed/reported weather or chaff areas, Echo intensity when available- moderate heavy extreme, Radar navigational guidance and or approve deviations around weather or chaff areas when requested, Weather and chaff information by defining the areas of coverage in terms of azimuth and distance from aircraft
What should you do when a deviation cannot be approved as requested?
If situation permits suggest an alternate course of action
Who should receive PIREPs?
All affected pilots, controllers, and facilities
What actions are required by the controller?
Advise pilots of hazardous weather that may impact operations within 150 NM of their sector or area of jurisdiction, Become familiar with and stay aware of current weather conditions in your sector and surrounding sectors when coming on duty and throughout your shift, Issue pertinent weather information including echo intensity when that information is available to the pilot on observed/reported weather or chaff areas
How are forecasts of aviation weather differentiated?
By the target audience
Define AIRMET.
A concise description of the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified en route weather phenomena which may affect the safety of aircraft operations, but at intensities lower than those which require the issuance of a SIGMET, Intended for the dissemination to all pilots in flight to enhance safety and are particular concern to operators and pilots of aircraft sensitive to phenomena described and to pilots without instrument ratings
Define SIGMET.
A concise description of the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified en route weather phenomena which may affect safety of aircraft operations, Provides aircraft operators and crews notice of potentially hazardous en route phenomena such as thunder storms and hail, turbulence, icing, sand and dust storms, tropical cyclones, and volcanic ash, Intended for all pilots
What are convective SIGMETs issued for?
Thunderstorms in the lower 48 states (other states regular SIGMET)
Define CWA.
Center weather advisory is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in flight advisory (AIRMET SIGMET Convective SIGMET) criteria. An unscheduled in flight, flow control, air traffic, and crew advisory. By nature of its short lead time the CWA is not a flight planning product. It is generally a short term forecast for conditions beginning within the next 2 hours, Issued by national weather service at center weather service units
What is a CWSU?
A joint FAA/NWS weather support team located in all en route centers. The team consists of NWS meteorologists and FAA traffic management personnel
When do you not have to broadcast to pilots of hazardous weather within 150 NM?
When the aircraft on your frequency will not be affected
What should be done upon receipt of hazardous flight information within commissioned HIWAS areas?
Broadcast a HIWAS alert on all frequencies except emergency frequencies
What should be done upon receipt of hazardous flight information NOT within commissioned HIWAS areas?
Advise pilots of the availability of hazardous weather advisories with instructions to request further information from flight watch or flight service
Define HIWAS.
A continuous recorded hazardous in flight weather forecast broadcasted to airborne pilots over selected VOR outlets defined as HIWAS broadcast areas
As a radar associate what is your responsibility in regards to receiving SIGMETS
AIRMETS, CWAsetc?,Must ensure the radar controller is made aware of them in a timely manner, Controllers must electronically acknowledge hazardous weather information messages which may be received via the SIGMET or GI views after appropriate action has been taken
What are the most hazardous icing conditions?
Encounters with freezing rain FZRA and freezing drizzle FZDZ (no aircraft is evaluated for these conditions)

Can ground based weather radar and airborne weather radar systems provide precise real time information on areas of ice?

NO
Icing forecasts are heavily dependent upon what?
PIREPs
What is structural icing? When does it form? And what are the 2 conditions necessary for it to form?
Ice that forms on the surface, +2 and -20 degrees c, Visible moisture and temperature at which the moisture hits the aircraft must be 0 degrees c or colder
When does icing occur?
365 days a year
How does structural icing affect an aircraft?
Reduces aircraft efficiency by either slowing the aircraft down or forcing it downward
What happens if an aircraft is in icing conditions for too long?
It may not be capable of climbing to exit the icing conditions
Half an inch of ice and reduce lift by how much?
50%
Define Clear Ice
Clear Ice- Most dangerous, Translucent or clear and generally smooth, Temp- 0 to -10, Can accumulate very rapidly and is difficult to remove
Define Rime Ice
Appears rough and milky, Temp- -15 to -20 degrees C, Formed by the instantaneous freezing of super-cooled droplets as they strike the aircraft
Define Mixed Ice
Mixture of both clear and rime, Temp- -10 to -15 degrees C, Appears as layers of relatively clear and opaque ice, Occurs when drops very in size, Similar to clear ice in that it can spread over more of the airframes surface and therefore more difficult to remove than rime
What are the four intensities of structural icing?
Trace, light, moderate, severe

What icing intensity is potentially hazardous with short encounters and use of anti-ice/de-ice equipment is necessary?

Moderate
Structural icing affects aircraft by _____weight and _____thrust.
Increasing weight and decreasing thrust
When VFR conditions are present
where can a VFR flight encounter icing?,In freezing rain and freezing drizzle

What is the most important source of information for icing?

PIREPs
Why is icing intensity subjective?
Icing conditions are extremely variable in space and time and depend on the ice type and ice protection of the reporting aircraft, A few hundred feet or a few minutes can make a huge difference, Type aircraft makes a huge difference

When soliciting/receiving icing OIREPS it is essential to collect what information?

Time, aircraft position, Aircraft type, altitudes icing was encountered, temperature, and type and intensity (good technique to ask if FZRA or FZDZ are present (it is also helpful to record if the aircraft was in a climb or descent since more surfaces are subject to accretion
Severe icing is considered what type of PIREP and what needs to be done?
Urgent PIREP and needs to be delivered to the CWC immediately and broadcasted over the frequency
Is it important to know when aircraft are not receiving icing?
Yes it can be equally important for both controllers and pilots. Can also be used to improve icing forecasts
PIREPs are always given in___
since altitudes are reported by pilot's perspective.,MSL
As a radar associate what you your responsibility for PIREPs?
Accurately writing down the information and giving it to the Supervisor for forwarding to CWC
Why are top reports important?
Indicate how quickly a storm is building...height indicates intensity
Why do controllers have a good idea of where icing exists?
Because our display shows precipitation (visible moisture), Does not show light precipitation nor does it display FZRA or FZDZ
What are good controller practices?
Keep pilots out of icing all together, Be familiar with the weather, Know your bases and tops, Be aware of freezing levels, Maintain the SIA with updates
What are controller requirements when there are known icing conditions?
Solicit a PIREP, Include icing conditions in position relief briefing, Always keep aircraft advised of known icing conditions
When must a controller solicit PIREPs in regards to icing?
When icing exists or is forecast to exist at a light degree or greater
Define Turbulence.
Any irregular motion of the aircraft in flight, especially when characterized by a rapid up and down motion, caused by a rapid variation in wind speed or direction, Can be caused by convection, wind shear, or obstruction to wind flow, Described in terms of intensity and altitude
Define wind shear.
A change in wind speed or direction within a short distance (horizontal or vertical), Turbulence can occur with wind shear
What causes wind shear?
Jet stream, fronts, temperature inversions and thunder storms
What is significant about LLWS?
Particularly dangerous form of wind shear and is hazardous to all aircraft, Caused by thunderstorms, Always present if there is a downburst, Microburst is the most severe form of a downburst, Pilots and affect facilities must be advised immediately of LLWS reports, Causes dramatic changes in head wind and tail wind during the most critical phases of flight
What is Clear Air Turbulence?
Often encountered in the vicinity of the jet stream typically where no clouds are present, Often cause by and found near the jet stream , Most common between 20,000 and 50,000 ft, Sometimes found in mountain range
What are the effects of CAT?
No visible indication, Rely on PIREPs for location, AIRMETs and SIGMETs may also contain information about CAT
Define Light Turbulence
Momentarily causes slight, erratic changes in altitude and or attitude
Define Moderate Turbulence
Similar to light turbulence but of a greater intensity. Changes in altitude and or attitude occur but the aircraft remains in positive control at all times, Variations in airspeed are small, occupants feel strains against seat belts, unsecured objects dislodged, food service and walking are difficult
Define Severe Turbulence
Causes large, abrupt changes in altitude and or attitude. Usually causes large variations in IAS. Aircraft may be momentarily out of control, Occupants are forced violently against seatbelts, unsecured objects are tossed about, food service and walking are impossible
Define Extreme Turbulence
The aircraft is violently tossed and is practically impossible to control, Structural damage is possible
What turbulence intensity is described when occupants feel strain against their seatbelts
there is difficulty walking and loose objects more about?,Moderate turbulence

What form of turbulence can result in large and abrupt altitude changes?

Sever and extreme
What is the only source of real time info on intensity and location of turbulence?
PIREPS
What must be done when moderate degree or greater turbulence or LLWS exists?
Solicit PIREPS
Define occasional
intermittent, and continuous.,Occasional- less then 1/3the time, Intermittent- 1/3 -2/3 the time, Continuous- more that 2/3 the time
How does turbulence impact ATC?
Reduces unusable airspace, frequency congestion, capacity to utilize routine control techniques may be reduced (speed control, vectoring in trail), increased workload due to re routes
Where do thunderstorms usually occur?
In warm weather in unstable air
What can higher surface temperatures create?
Temperature instability leading to strong convective updrafts and cumulus clouds
Can the ATC radar show all of a thunderstorm?
No only precip...thunderstorm is much bigger
What are embedded thunderstorms? And why are they dangerous?
Embedded in clouds, some or haze and are not visible to pilots, thunderstorms that are closest to an aircraft can mask the presence of embedded storms further along with some types of on board radar, difficult to deviate around because the are often part of a line of thunderstorms
Why are thunderstorms hazardous?
Sever to extreme turbulence, sever icing, nail, lightening, downbursts, LLWS , tornados, low cieiling and reduced visibility
How far to hazards of a thunderstorm reach?
20 miles
How many miles should be between storms to fly through?
40 miles
Where can hail occur?
Top of a thunderstorm all the way to the surface and can be found several miles away from the cumulonimbus cloud
What are the affect of hail?
Damage windshield, damage aircraft and make it difficult to control, break nose cone and on board radar, damage and disrupts the airflow over the airfoils reducing lift
Where does lightening occur?
Within several miles away from the main thunderstorm, can occur within the anvil or our of the sides of the cumulonimbus, can extend could to could, cloud to air, or cloud to ground
Why is lighting a hazard to aircraft?
Can damage or disable aircraft by disabling electrical systems, igniting fuel vapors, temporarily blinding pilots
When do tornados occur?
With supercell thunderstorms and are usually brief lasting only a few minutes but can last over an hour
What information is available to the controller about the presence of thunderstorms?
WARP/NEXRAD, METAR reports, Convective SIGMETS, CWAs, PIREPS
What type of precipitation does WARP/NEXRAD not show?
Light
How do you issue precipitation information?
"Moderate precipitation between 9 o clock and 2 o clock 3-0 miles. Precipitation area is 4-0 miles in diameter"
What does a convective SIGMET imply?
Severe or greater turbulence, sever icing, and LLWS
CWA...
Issued as in unscheduled aviation weather warning for conditions meeting Convective SIGMET criteria, May precede or refine
Convective SIGMET
May also highlight significant thunderstorms not meeting Convective SIGMET criteria, Used to alert pilot of existing of anticipated adverse weather conditions that are expected to occur within 2 hours of the time issued
What intensities does WARP/NEXRAD show?
Moderate heavy extreme
What is ALTRV?
Altitude reservation is airspace utilization under prescribed conditions, normally employed for the mass movement of aircraft under special user requirements that cannot otherwise be accomplished., ALTRVs are approved by the appropriate ATC facility, Shall receive special handling for FAA facilities
ATC facilities shall provide inflight separation unless ____is applicable. Define.
MARSA- military assumes responsibility for separation of aircraft, Is covered in LOA appropriate FAA/military document, Will NOT be indiscriminately invoked by individual units or pilots, ATC does not invoke or deny MARSA, DOD is responsible for coordination with SUA and ATCAA involving MARSA , ATC is not responsible for determining which aircraft are authorized to enter SUA/ATCAA
When is MARSA discontinued?
When aircraft advise they are separated and ATC advises MARSA is terminated
Define SUA
Special use airspace is airspace of defined dimensions identified by an area on the surface of the earth wherein activities must be confined because of their nature and or wherein limitations may be imposed upon aircraft operations that are not part of those activities
Define Alert Area.
Airspace that may contain a high volume of pilot training activities or an unusual type of aerial activity, neither of which is hazardous to aircraft. Alert Areas are depicted on aeronautical charts for the information of nonparticipating pilots. All activities within an alert area are conducted in accordance with FARs and pilots of participating aircraft as well as pilots transitioning the area are equally responsible for collision avoidance
Define Controlled Firing Area.
Airspace wherein activities are conducted under conditions so controlled as to eliminate hazard to nonparticipating aircraft and to ensure the safety of persons and property on the ground
Define MOA.
A military operations area is airspace established outside of a class A airspace area to separate or segregate certain nonhazardous military activities from IFR traffic and to identify for VFR traffic where these activities are conducted (can but up to but not including FL180, may be in any type of airspace except class A)
Define Prohibited Airspace.
Airspace delegated under FAR Part 73 within which no person may operate an aircraft without permission of the using agency
Define Restricted Area.
Airspace designated under FAR Part 73 within which the flight of aircraft, while not wholly prohibited, is subject to restriction. Most restricted areas are designated joint use, and IFR/VFR operations in the area may be authorized by the controlling ATC facility with is it not being utilized by the using agency. Restricted areas are depicted on the en route charts. Where joint use is authorized, the name of the ATC controlling facility is also shown
Define Warning Area.
Airspace of defined dimensions, extending from 3 NM outward from the coast of the US, that contains activity that may be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft. The purpose of such a warning area is to warn nonparticipating pilots of the potential danger. A warning area may be located over domestic or international waters or both
Define ATCAA.
ATC Assigned Airspace is airspace defined vertical/lateral limits assigned by ATC for the purpose of providing air traffic segregation between the specified activities being conducted within the assigned airspace and other IFR air traffic , Normally overlies other published SUA such as a MOA and contains altitudes at or above FL180 within class A airspace. This allows air traffic control facilities to protect all other aircraft on IFR flight plans from activities within ATCAA
Why do SUA and ATC Assigned Airspace exist?
To separate military training activities from nonparticipating aircraft, Apply the appropriate separation minima between nonparticipating aircraft and SUA and ATCAA unless:, Pilot informs you that permission has been obtained for using agency to operate in the airspace, Using agency informs you that they have given permission for the aircraft to operate in the airspace, It has been released to the controlling agency, The aircraft is on an approved ALTRV, unless airspace is an ATCAA, *these procedures do not apply to Alert Areas or Controlled Firing Areas
How is SUA defined?
Vertical limits in MSL (unless otherwise indicated "to" means to and including), Horizontal limits are defined by geographical coordinates or other appropriate reference that clearly describe their boundary
How are aircraft separated from active SUA an ATCAA?
FL290 and below- 500ft, Above FL290- 1,000 ft, FL600 and above- 6 miles, Below FL600- 3 miles, *not required for Prohibited/Restricted/warning areas not involving aircraft operations, vector to avoid
What does the word "to" mean when referring to an altitude or flight level?
Up to an including
Define aerial refueling.
A procedure used by the military to transfer fuel from one aircraft to another during flight
Define Military Training Route.
MTR is airspace of defined vertical and lateral dimensions established for the conduct of military flight training at airspeeds in excess of 250 kts IAS, All route are one way only (IR177, VR265)
Define IFR Military Training Route-
(IR) is a route used by the DOD and associated Reserve and Air Guard units for the purpose of conducting low altitude navigation and tactical training in both IFR and VFR conditions below 10,000 ft MLS at airspeeds in excess of 250 kts IAS
Define VFR Military Training Route
(VR) a route used by the DOD and associated Reserve and Air Guard units for the purpose of conducting low altitude navigation and tactical training under VFR conditions below 10,000 ft MLS at airspeeds in excess of 250 kts IAS
Define Celestial Navigation.
The art and science of finding one's geographic position by means of astronomical observations, particularly by measuring altitudes of celestial objects-sun moon planets or stars. During CELNAV, the pilot will advise ATC before initiating and heading changes which exceed 20 degrees
Define Formation Flight.
Consists of more than one aircraft which, by prior arrangement between pilots, operate as a single aircraft with regard to navigation and position reporting
Define Stand Formation Flight.
Each wingman will maintain a position no more than 1 mile laterally or longitudinally within 100 feet vertically from the flight leader
Define Non Standard Formation Flight.
The flight leader has requested and ATC has approved formation dimensions other than standard, or, The formation is operating on an approved ALTRV or under the provisions of a LOA, or The formation is operating in airspace specifically designated for special activity
Separation requirements for formation flights.
Standard formation add 1 mile, Two standard formations add 2 miles, Nonstandard formation apply appropriate separation minima to perimeters of nonstandard formation (assign an appropriate beacon code to each aircraft or lead and trail aircraft)
What information must be forwarded to FSS from airborne military flights?
IFR flight plans, Changes from VFR to IFR flight plans, Changes to IFR flight plans such as a change in fuel exhaustion time or a change in destination
What must be forwarded to FSS regaurding a change in military flight?
Aircraft ID/type, Departure point, Original destination, Position and time, New destination, ETA, Remarks including fuel exhaustion time, Revised ETA
Define Status Information Area.
The manual or automatic display of the current status of position related equipment and operational conditions or procedures
Define written notes.
Manually recorded items of information kept at designated locations on the position of operation. They may be an element of the SIA
What does a position relief checklist contain? And where are they displayed?
NAVAIDS, Equipment, Radar, Airport, Weather, Staffing , Flow control, Special activities, Traffic, Comm. Status all know aircraft *at every sector
What are the responsibilities of the specialist being relieved?
Ensure any known pertinent status information is accurately relayed to the relieving controller or displayed in the SIA, or relayed to the position responsible for displaying it, Provide a briefing that is complete and accurate, Brief on equipment with the outages view displayed
What is the responsibility of the relieving specialist?
Prior to accepting responsibility for the position ensure that any unresolved questions are answered and that the briefing takes place to your total satisfaction
What are the shared responsibilities of the specialists?
Completeness and accuracy of the briefing and conducting the briefing at the position being relieved unless other procedures authorized by the facility air traffic manager have been established
What is a display of the current status of the position equipment and operational conditions or procedures called?
SIA
Unless otherwise authorized where shall the position relief briefing be conducted?
At the position being relieved
Which specialist is responsible for ensuring questions are resolved?
Relieving specialist
Accuracy of information displayed in the SIA is the responsibility of?
Specialist being relieved
Who is responsible for the completeness and accuracy of the position relief briefing?
Both
What are the four steps in the position relief briefing?
Preview the position, Verbal briefing, Assumption of position responsibility, Review the position
Who decides when the verbal briefing may begin?
Relieving specialist will indicate when the preview is complete and when the verbal briefing may begin
The final act of assuming responsibility for the position is initiated by the...?
Relieving controller

After the relieving specialist has assumed responsibility for the sector

the relieved specialist.....?,Reviews all information for omissions, updates, or inaccuracies
If the specialist being relieved recognizes an inaccuracy immediately after relinquishing position responsibility
who should be notified?,Relieving specialist and any appropriate position
When should you record each pertinent status information item?
As soon as operationally feasible because of omission during briefing or incorrect memory recall
Use extra care during a relief brief when?
Simultaneous reliefs are occurring and combining or splitting sectors or position