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40 Cards in this Set

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You find a fossil that you are sure shows evidence of bipedalism. You know this because which of the following anatomical traits is present?

thighbones that angle in toward the knees

Based on the research of Philip Reno, early hominins show reduced sexual dimorphism, which is evidence for cooperation and likely for:

pair bonding.

Hominins have canines that are:

small, blunt, and nonprojecting, with no diastema.

In East Africa robust australopithecines are also called:


Paranthropus

Which of the following is an adaptive characteristic of bipedalism?


longitudinal arch in the foot

Beginning more than 3 mya, at least two lineages of hominin evolution emerged, one that led to the genus Homo and one that:


included the now extinct descendents of Au afarensis.

The Oldowan Complex is a part of the:


Lower Paleolithic.

The earliest australopithecines first show up in the fossil record more than:


4 mya.

The foundational behavior of Hominini was:


bipedalism

Ecological evidence from the site where Ardi was found shows that:


early hominins lived in a forest.

An increased ability to see greater distances is one of the adaptations to:


bipedalism

Fossils attributed to Australopithecus garhi were found at the Bouri site, in Ethiopia, along with:


animal bones with cutmarks.

Owen Lovejoy’s Provisioning hypothesis proposes that:


monogamy and food provisioning created the necessity for bipedalism.

Using tools and tool making is an adaptation by hominins as a result of:


bipedalism

Humans use their molars for:


crushing

The only preaustralopithecine found outside the East African Rift Valley is:


Sahelanthropus tchadensis.

The ravine in northern Tanzania where many early hominin fossils have been recovered (often referred to as the “cradle of humankind”) is:


Olduvai Gorge.

Ardi was adapted to life in trees and:


on the ground.

The discovery of Kenyanthropus platyops was important mainly because:


it showed diversity in the hominin fossil record 3.5 mya.

Speech, advanced cognition, and complex material culture:


do not define a hominin.

The adaptive radiation of the australopithecines after their split from the lineage that led to early Homo seems to have focused on _________.


mastication

Ardi’s intermediate form of bipedality included the use of:


palms and feet to move along tree branches.

The earliest hominins probably lived in which kind of environment?


complex hybrid habitats

Robust australopithecines were extinct by:


1mya

Which of the following is a derived trait of Sahelanthropus tchandensis?


nonhoning chewing complex

A hominin is defined as having two obligate behaviors:


bipedal locomotion and nonhoning chewing complex.

The Oldowan Complex is a part of the:


Lower Paleolithic.

Beginning more than 3 mya, at least two lineages of hominin evolution emerged, one that led to the genus Homo and one that:


included the now extinct descendents of Au afarensis.

Australopithecus garhi has been proposed as an ancestor for Homo mainly because:


it had longer legs relative to arm length than other australopithecines.

Australopithecus robustus was likely the longest-surviving species of australopithecine in South Africa. It had:


large molars, a big face, and a sagittal crest.

The Oldowan Complex includes tools like:


choppers, cobbles, flakes, and bone tools.

Australopithecus garhi may be the ancestor of:


Homo habilis.

Australopithecus robustus’s large masticatory complex (large molars, face, and muscles) indicate an adaptation:


to eating foods requiring heavy chewing.

Fossils attributed to Australopithecus garhi were found at the Bouri site, in Ethiopia, along with:


animal bones with cutmarks.

The discovery of Kenyanthropus platyops was important mainly because:


it showed diversity in the hominin fossil record 3.5 mya.

Evidence indicating that Orrorin tugenensis was bipedal comes mainly from which part of the skeleton?


femur (thighbone)
The diversity of the hominins included increasingly specialized
diets

Along with other distinct traits robust australopithecines had __________ adapted for grinding food.


large temporalis muscles and a sagittal crest

Thick dental enamel in__________ helps with crushing food.


australopithecines

Bipedalism’s advantages over quadrupedalism include:


both a. and c