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17 Cards in this Set

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Dysphoria
a state of prolonged bouts of sadness
Anhedonia
feel little joy in anything they do and lose interest in nearly all activities
Mania
abnormally elevated or expansive mood
Euphoria
exaggerated sense of well-being
Bipolar D/O (BP)
an ongoing combination of extreme highs and extreme lows
Overview of Mood Disorders
- children with mood d/o suffer from extreme, persistent, or poorly regulated emotional states- for example, excessive unhappiness or swings in mood from deep sadness to high elation
- Mood d/o are common and among the most persistent and disabling illnesses in young people
- There are two major types of mood d/o: depressive disorders and bipolar disorder
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
- has a minimum duration of 2 weeks and is associated with: depressed mood, loss of interest, other symptoms, and a significant impairment in functioning
Five or more of the following with at least one being 1 or 2:
1) depressed mood
2) markedly diminished interest/anhedonia
3) significant weight loss or weight gain
4) insomnia or hypersomnia
5) psychomotor agitation or retardation
6) fatigue
7) feelings of worthlessness or excessive/inappropriate guilt
8) diminished ability to think or concentrate
9) recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideatioin
Dysthymic Disorder
- has a longer duration (1 year) and less severity of symptoms associated with MDD
depressed mood for most of the day on most days for at least 1 year
Presence of 2+ of the following:
- poor appetite or overeating
- insomnia or hypersomnia
- low energy or fatigue
- low self esteem
- poor concentration or difficulty making decisions
- feelings of hopelessness
Overview of Depression
- Depression in young people involves numerous and persistent symptoms, including impairments in mood, behavior, attitudes, thinking, and physical functioning
- For a long time, it was mistakenly believed that depression didn't exist in children in a form comparable to depression in adults
- it is now known that depression in young people is prevalent, disabling, and often under-referred.
- The way in which children express and experience depression changes with age
- It is important to distinguish between depression as a symptom, syndrome, and disorder
- Depressive d/o come in two types: MDD and dysthymic
Overview of MDD
- The key features of MDD are: sadness, loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, irritability, plus many specific symptoms that are present for a duration of at least 2 weeks
- The overall prevelence of MDD for 4-18 is 2-8%, with rates that are low during childhood but increasing dramatically during adolescence
- The most frequent accompanying d/o in youngsters with depression are: anxiety d/o, dysthymia, conduct problems, ADHD and substance use
- Almost all youngsters recover from their first depressive episode; but about 70% have another episode w/in 5 years and many develop bipolar d/o
- Depression in preadolescent children is equally common in boys and girls; but, the ratio of girls to boys is about 2:1 to 3:1 after puberty
- the relationships among depression and race and ethnicity during childhood is an uderstudied area
Double Depression
where a major depressive episode is superimposed on the child's previous dysthymia, causing the child to present with both d/o
Overview of DD
- children w/ DD display depressive symptoms on most days for >1year
- about 5% of children and adolescents have an episode of dysthymia by the end of adolescence
- the most common accompaning d/o w/ DD are: sumperimposed MDD, anxiety d/o, CD, and ADHD
- the most common age of onset for DD is 11-12 w/ an average episode length of 2-5years
- almost all youngsters eventually recover from DD, but many develop MDD
- children who recover from DD differ mainly from other children on measures of psychosocial functioning
Overview of Associated Characteristics of Depressive D/o
- youngsters w/ depression have normal intelligence, although certain symptoms (i.e. difficulty concentrating, loss of interest, slowness of thought) may negatively affect intellectual functioning
- perform more poorly in school, score lower on standardized achievement tests, and have lower levels of grade attainment
- often experience deficits and distortions in their thinking, including negative beliefs, attributions of failure, and self critical automatic negative thoughts
- almost all youngsters with depression experience low or unstable self-esteem
- have few friends and close relationships, feel lonely and isolated and feel that others dont like them
- they experience poor relations and conflict with their parents and siblings who in turn may respond in a negative, dismissing, or harsh manner
- most report suicidal thinking and 16-30% attempt
Psychodynamic Theory of Depression
introjection of the lost object; anger turned inward; excessive severity of the superego; loss of self esteem
Attachment Theory of Depression
insecure early attachments; distorted internal working models of self and others
Behavioral Theory of Depression
Lack or loss of reinforcement or quality of reinforcement; defecits in skills needed to obtain reinforcement
Cognitive Theory of Depression
Depressive mindset; distorted or maladaptive cognitive structurs, processes, and products; negative view of self, world, and future; moor problem solving ability; hopelessness