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27 Cards in this Set

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Matter

Has volume and mass

Pure Substance

Always contains the same ratio of components. All one substance.


Element

Cannot be broken down into anything simpler by chemical means.




Atom=smallest chunk




E.g. mercury, krypton

Compound

Chemical combination of two or more elements




Molecule=smallest chunk




E.g. pure water, salt, pure sand, magnesium oxide

Solution

-All parts are the same but can be made in any amount


-Two or more substances


-Homogeneous mixture


-E.g. salt water, clear tea, bronze

Mechanical mixture

-Can identify different parts (phases)


-Heterogeneous mixture


-E.g. a beach, ocean water, milk, human blood, paper with ink

Proton (location, charge)

-in the nucleus


-charge of +1

Neutron (location, charge)

-in the nucleus


-charge of 0

Electron (location, charge)

-in orbit


-charge of -1

Rutherford's model of the atom

Protons and neutrons in the nucleus with electrons in orbit. Atom is mostly empty space. The Solar System model.

Protons and neutrons in the nucleus with electrons in orbit. Atom is mostly empty space. The Solar System model.

Rutherford model vs. Thomson model

-Thomson has a solid atom with electrons scattered in positive stuff. Plum Pudding Model.


-Rutherford put all the positive in the center and electrons in orbit. The atom is not solid.

-Thomson has a solid atom with electrons scattered in positive stuff. Plum Pudding Model.




-Rutherford put all the positive in the center and electrons in orbit. The atom is not solid.

Bohr model of the atom

Had the atom as Rutherford did except electrons existed in a specific order with a maximum number of electrons in each orbit.

Had the atom as Rutherford did except electrons existed in a specific order with a maximum number of electrons in each orbit.

Max. number of electrons in each level of a Bohr model

2,8,8... (for first twenty elements)

Hypothesis

-Educated guess


-Based on evidence from previous knowledge

Theory

-Has been scientifically proven


-Has evidence to support it

Properties of metals

-Lustre


-Silver except for gold and copper


-Solid at room temperature except for mercury


-conductors


-malleable and ductile



Noble gases

-Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon


-Last column on Periodic Table

HNAKXR

Halogens

-Fluorine, Bromine, Iodine, Chlorine, Astatine


-Second last column on Periodic Table

Transition metals

-Chunk in the middle of Periodic Table


-Manganese, Cobalt, Iridium, Titanium, Zinc

Charge on ions pattern

+1, +2, +3, +/-4, -3, -2, -1, 0

Re activity in metals on the Periodic Table

-Less reactive going right


-More reactive going down

Chemical Change

-Producing a new substance


-Colour change, solid or gas forming in liquid, light or heat produced, hard to reverse

Physical Change

Change in appearance only

Physical properties

Properties of a substance that we can observe or measure.

Qualitative Properties

-Describe a substance, observable




E.g. colour, shape, taste, odour, size, state of matter, texture, hardness, brittleness, lustre, dull, solubility (does it dissolve), viscosity, optical clarity, malleability, ductility

Quantitative Properties

-Measured properties




E.g. mass, size, density, volume, melting point, boiling point

Diatomic Elements

-Exist only as a pair of atoms together




-Hydrogen (H2), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), Fluorine (F2), Chlorine (Cl2), Bromine (Br2), Iodine (I2)