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26 Cards in this Set

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Isotope

Atoms of the same elements which differ in the number of neutrons (or differ in mass # implying they differ in neutrons)



Diff in neutrons means vary slightly in mass



Therefore relative mass of isotopes is different

(Relative) Average Atomic Mass



Of an element

A number which represents the average weighted mass of all the isotopes of that element

Isotopic abundance

The relative amount in which each isotope is present in an element (see diagram)

Radioisotopes

Radioactive isotopes


-nuclei of some atoms unstable


-uranium decomposes into polonium and radium


-uranium(mass#235) releases radiation and breaks into 2


Lighter atoms


*an isotope that spontaneously decays to produce 2 or more smaller nuclei and radiation*

Law of Periodicity (periodic law)

When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic #, there is a periodic repetition of elements with similar properties



-elements are classified according to sims in chem/phys properties

Valence #

# of electrons which an atom must gain/lose to have outer energy level filled


SEE SUMMARY OF ELEMENTS CHART

Octet Rule

Atoms react chemically to achieve a noble (inert) gas electron arrangement

KNOW TRENDS

KNow EM!

Ionic bonds

Form when electrons are completely TRANSFERRED from one atom to another


-occur in COMPOUNDS


-between metal+non metal atoms


-diff in EN is GREATER than 1.7


-non metal PULLS valence e away from metal b/c of EN value


-nonmetal-> cation (loses è)


-2 + charged ions ATTRACT b/c law of electrostatics

Covalent bonds

Form when electrons are shared between atoms


-in molecular compounds


-bt 2 Non Metal atoms


Diff in EN LESS than 1.7


Both compete valence orbit by attracting valence E from other atom


-neither atom strong enough to remove E from other ther for SHARE

KNOW PROPERTY CHART

GO LOOK AT IT

2 purposes of IUPAC

1) provide a nomenclature that would be recognized internationally (UNIVERSAL) so that chemists around the world could efficiently communicate w// 1 another


2) to provide a SYSTEMATIC approach to naming chemicals so that new compounds could easily be named according to existing nomenclature

Effective Nuclear Charge

The net force experienced by an electron in an atom to the positively charged nucleus

Type of bonding in ionic compounds is

IONIC

Type of bonding in molecular compounds is

Covalent (INTRAmolecular)

Particles involved in ionic compounds is

Oppositely charged IONS

State @ room temp for ionic compounds

Crystalline solids

State @ room temp for molecular compounds

Solid, liquid, or gas

Melting point for ionic compounds

High

Melting point for molecular compounds is

Low

Ionic compounds Solubility in water is

High

Molecular compound solubility in water is

Low solubility

Ionic compound Electrical conductivity as a liquid?

Yes!

Molecular compound conductivity as a liquid?

No

Electrical conductivity when dissolved in water for ionic compounds?

Yes!

Electrical conductivity when dissolved In water for molecular compounds?

Not usually...