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7 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
24. All of the statements about nuclear reactions are true except
a) Nuclear reactions involve changes in the nucleus of an atom.
b) The rate of a nuclear reaction is increased by the addition of a catalyst.
c) A nuclear reaction is unaffected by the chemical state of the atoms involved.
d) Nuclear reactions of the same element vary according to which isotope is involved.
e) Energy changes in nuclear reactions are much greater than in ordinary chemical reactions.
c) A nuclear reaction is unaffected by the chemical state of the atoms involved.
25. The emission of a particle from an unstable nucleus is called ________.
a) mutation b) nuclear decay c) fission d) fusion e) translocation
b) nuclear decay
26. If the half-life of iodine-131 is 8 days, it is true that
a) the decay rate would be different if the chemical environment of iodine-131 is changed.
b) after 16 days a sample of iodine-131 would have completely decayed.
c) after 8 days 50 % of a sample of iodine-131 would have decayed.
d) iodine-131 would decay faster in its first half-life than in later half-lives.
e) All of the above are true.
) after 8 days 50 % of a sample of iodine-131 would have decayed.
27. Ionizing radiation is dangerous to living things because it alters the chemical structure of
atoms/molecules. The effects of ionizing radiation on the human body vary with________.
a) the energy of the radiation.
b) the distance of the radiation source from the body.
c) the length of exposure to the radiation.
d) the location of the source inside or outside of the body.
e) all of the above.
e) all of the above.
28. The unit of radiation exposure which allows for the energy and penetrating power of
different types of radiation is the ________.
a) curie b) roentgen c) rad d) rem e) sievert
d) rem
29. When a large nucleus is bombarded with particles and breaks into two similarly sized
nuclei plus one or more small particles, the process is called ________.
a) fusion b) fission c) spontaneous decay d) mutation e) induced decay
b) fission
Be specific about Beta radiation
Beta particle is a fast-moving electron traveling at approximately 90% speed of light as it leaves the nucleus.
Beta particles are smaller and faster than alpha and they are more penetrating, stopped only by materials such as wood, metal, or several layers of clothing. Identity is Electron, charge is -1, mass is 0.000549 amu, velocity is up to 90% of the speed of light, penetration is medium.