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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define energy.
The capacity to do work, generate heat and/or generate electricity.
What are the two laws of thermodynamics?
1. Energy can be converted into different forms, but the total energy of a system is constant.
2. With every energy conversion, energy is always lost as heat.
What are the 4 primary sources of energy?
Chemical, nuclear, solar and geological.
Name the 4 kinds of energy changes in descending order in how much energy they involve.
Nuclear, chemical, phase, and temperature.
What is kinetic energy? What does an increase in kinetic energy cause?
The energy of motion of particles. An increase in kinetic energy results in an increase in temperature.
What is heat?
The transfer of thermal energy.
What are the three types of kinetic energy?
Vibrational motion, rotational motion and translational motion.
Define heat capacity.
The heat required to change the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by 1 degree celsius.
True or false, phase changes always involve a change in kinetic energy.
False, phase changes always involve a change in potential energy.
Melting, vaporization and sublimation are all ___________ reactions.
What types of phase changes are exothermic?
Freezing, condensation and deposition.
What is enthalpy?
The total kinetic and potential energy of a chemical system under a constant pressure and temperature.
True or false, during a phase change kinetic energy remains constant.
What is molar enthalpy?
The enthalpy change per mole of a substance.
What is colorimetry?
A technological process of measuring energy change using an isolated system.
Who are your best friends in Chemistry 30?
Oxidation numbers, P-R, HL=HG, and P/R.
What is chemical change?
A transformation involving an energy change in which one substance is converted into another substance.
What is the heat of reaction?
The enthalpy change of a reaction referring to changes in potential energy.
What does a negative heat of reaction mean?
The reaction is exothermic.
What is bond energy?
The energy required to break a chemical bond or the energy released when a bond is formed.
What is the activation energy?
The energy required to pull apart the atoms in the reactants, always higher than the energy contained in the reactants and the products.
What happens to the activation energy for the reaction when a catalyst is added?
A catalyst acts to lower the activation energy.
What is Hess's Law?
If two or more thermochemical equations are added to give a final equation, then the enthalpies can be added to give the enthalpy for the final equation.
What is heat of formation?
The changes in potential energy that occur when compounds are formed from their elements.
What is an indirect measure of the stability of a compound?
Heats of formation can indicate the stability of a compound. The more exothermic the formation, the more stable the compound.