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43 Cards in this Set

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Acculturation/Melting Pot

The acquisition of the dominant culture's norms by a member of the nondominant culture. The nondominant culture typically loses its own culture, language, and sometimes religion in this process.

Americanization

The acculturation of American norms and values. (replacing the old culture with the new American one)

charter school

A group of teachers, parents, and even businesses may petition a local school board, or state government, to form a charter school that is exempt from many state and local regulations. Designed to promote creative new schools, the charter represents legal permission to try new approaches to educate students. First charter legislation was passed in Minnesota in 1991.

distance learning

Courses, programs, and training provided to students over long distances through television, the Internet, and other technologies.

full service school

These schools provide a network of social services from nutrition and health care to parental education and transportation, all designed to support the comprehensive educational needs of children.

green schools

Schools that offer healthier learning environments with clean air and water, nourishing and natural foods, nontoxic cleaners, and more outdoor activities. Academic performance often improves in green schools, and absenteeism decreases.

homeschooling
A growing trend (but a longtime practice) of parents educating their children at home, for religious or philosophical reasons. *******************************************

magnet school

A specialized school open to all students in a district on a competitive or lottery basis. It provides a method of drawing children away from segregated neighborhood schools while affording unique educational specialties, such as science, math, and the performing arts.

merit pay

A salary system that bases a teacher's pay on performance. ********************************************************************************************************

A Nation at Risk

The Imperative for Education Reform A 1983 federal report that characterized U.S. schools as mediocre, putting the nation at risk of losing economic and technological ground to other countries. The report called for renewed emphasis on core academic subjects and ushered in the era of "back to basics" education.

norm-referenced tests

Tests that compare individual students with others in a designated norm group. ***************************************************************

objective-referenced tests

Tests that measure whether students have mastered a designated body of knowledge rather than how they compare with other students in a norm group.

open enrollment

The practice of permitting students to attend the school of their choice within their school system. It is sometimes associated with magnet schools and desegregation efforts.

Privatization
The movement toward increased private sector, for-profit involvement in the management of public agencies, including schools.
Reconstructionists
Also called social reconstructionism, this is a view of education as a way to improve the quality of life, to reduce the chances of conflict, and to create a more humane world.
service credit
By volunteering in a variety of community settings, such as organizations serving the poor, the elderly, or the homeless, students meet what is now a high school graduation requirement in many states.

Tenure

A system of employment in which teachers, having served a probationary period, acquire an expectancy of continued employment. The majority of states have tenure laws.
value added
A statistical measure showing the contribution of teachers and schools toward growth in student achievement. Value-added measures are increasingly used to determine which teachers are rewarded and which teachers are replaced.

virtual schools

A type of distance education offered through the Internet. Virtual schools provide asynchronous learning and may offer specialized courses not typically found in traditional schools.

voucher

A voucher is like a coupon, and it represents money targeted for schools. In a voucher system, parents use educational vouchers to "shop" for a school. Schools receive part or all of their per-pupil funding from these vouchers. In theory, good schools would thrive and poor ones would close for lack of students.

Tools to reconstruct society

social action curriculum, service credit, Paulo Freire's The Pedagogy of the Oppressed **********************

John Goodlad

He said parents, teachers, and students rank four main goals (academic, social/civic, vocational, and personal) "very important."

value added teaching.

The idea that teacher raises would be linked to student gains on standardized tests is **********************************

Teacher performance

Bases teacher pay raises on outside observations. ***************************************************************************************************************

"unilateral


educational


disarmament."

A Nation at Risk charged that the United States had been committing ****************************************

pretend attend.

Students who are physically present in class but are not intellectually engaged are referred to as *****************************************

pedagogues.


Homeschool Parents who are motivated to offer a more effective education than what is available in public school, they are dissatisfied the quality of their neighborhood schools are called

Reformers

A charter advocate who wants to expand public school options, create a positive option for parents and children and perhaps promote a specific approach that is more student centered. They get positive reports in the press.

Types of charter


advocates


Reformers, zealots and entrepreneurs ***************************************************************************************************************************

zealots

A charter advocate who promotes more conservative schools and who typically do not like teacher unions. They emphasize traditional curricular ideas and teacher-centered classrooms

entrepreneurs

A charter advocate that consists of business people who believe that efficiency can convert schools into untapped profit centers. They believe that you can teach students and still make a profit for investors.

KIPP

Knowledge is Power Program-how to make inner city schools work. ***********************************************************************************************************************

Knowledge Is Power


5 principles (KIPP)

1. More time 2. High Expectations 3. choice and commitment 4. Power to lead and 5. Focus on results ( Most are African American and Hispanic.

idealogues

Homeschool parents who focus on imparting certain values. They create a homeschool where they choose the curriculum, create the rules, enforce a schedule and promote their beliefs, usually religious beliefs.

Zelman v. Simmons-Harris

In this ruling, the Supreme Court ruled in 2002 that the use of publicly funded vouchers to attend private religious schools does not violate the separation of church and state.


The Lemon Test

What do we call the three criteria determining the legality of government funds used in religious schools?

The 1971 ruling in Lemon v. Kurtzman.


(3criteria)

1)Must have a secular purpose


2)Must not primarily advance or prohibit religion


3)Must not result in excessive government entanglement with religion

Edison Schools

The Edison schools are the largest for-profit venture in public schools. ***************************************************************************

successful schools

These schools utilize faculty and staff to identify potential problems with students before they become more serious.

Traditional five-factor theory


of effective schools- linked


to successful schools

1. Strong Leadership


2. A Clear School mission


3. A safe and orderly climate


4. Monitoring student progress


5. High Expectations

Pygmalion in the Classroom 1969 by Rosenthal and Jacobson

They popularized the term "self-fulfilling prophecy and revealed that students may learn as much or as little as teachers expect.

Teachers with low student expectations offer

1. Fewer opportunities to respond


2. Less praise


3. Less challenging work


4. Few nonverbal signs (eye contact, smiles, positive regard)


Additional factors of effective schools

1. Early start


2. Focus on reading and math


3. School size-small schools learn more


4. smaller classes


5. Increased learning time


6. teacher training


7. trust


8. parental involvement.