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25 Cards in this Set

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Energy metabolism:
1) Definition?
2) Multistep series of?
3) Clarifies how macronutrients are?
1) processing energy from food into form the body can use
2) energy transforming chemical rx 9cellular respiration
3) are interrelated, serve as fuel for body
Metabolism: Chemical Reactions in the Body:
1) What is the Metabolic Pathway?
2) What are Intermediates?
3) What is Anabolic?
4) What is Catabolic?
1) Biochemical rx that occur in progression from beginning to end
2) compounds formed in a pathway
3) Pathways that build compounds and use energy
4) Pathways that break down compounds and yeild energy
Cellular Respiration:
1) Formula
2) Glucose and oxygen broken down to yield what 3 things?
3) What pathways
4) Focuses on glucose, but what?
1) C6H12O6+6O2=Energy+6H2O+6CO2
2) energy, water, and waste products
3) catabolic
4) macronutrients can be used
Cellular Respiration;
1) Energy created used to make what?
2) Glucose molecule contains?
3) Which contains more energy, 1 glucose molecule or 1 ATP?
1) ATP
2) energy (kcals)
3) glucose
ATP:
1) Form of energy the body can what?
2) Stands for?
3) High energy what?
1) use
2) Adenosine Triphosphate
3) Nucleotide
Cellular Respiration:
1) Glucose splits and yields what? (3)
2) H atoms released during what?
3) H atoms are highly what?
4) What happens when we breath in oxygen?
1) energy, water, CO2
2) break down of glucose molecule
3) acidic
4) H is transfered to O, using coenzyme NAD to create water
NAD:
1) Stands for?
2) Transfers what?
3) Yields What?
1) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
2) H atoms , electrons 2 at a time to O
3) water
Oxidation-Reduction Reaction:
1) Molecules loses H or electrons=?
2) Glucose oxidized to?
3) Molecules gain H or electrons=?
4) oxygen reduced to?
1) oxidized
2) CO2
3) reduced
4) water
Cellular Respiration:
1) What is produced from the reaction? (2)
2) What happens to glucose?
3) What are the three parts in cellular respiration?
1) 34 atp and heat
2) broken apart in multiple series of rx
3) a. glycolysis b. cytric acid cycle c. electron transport chain
Glycolysis:
1) Glyco=?
2) Lysis=?
3) Occurs where?
4) Does nto require what?
5) Net gain?
6) Next Setp depends on?
1) sugar
2) to split apart
3) cytoplasm
4) oxygen
5) 2 ATP and 2 NADH2
6) if O is available
When O is Available?
1) What kind of respiration?
2) Pyruvate is shuttled into what?
3) Pyruvate is changed to what?
1) aerobic respiration
2) mitochondria
3) Acetyl CoA (transition Reaction)
-Carbon dioxide and NADH2
No O Available:
1) Process of cellular respiration will stop after what?
2) Called what kind of respiration
3) Occurs where
4) NADH2 transfers what?
5) Why do you pant during exercise even after you stopped?
6) What does build up of lactic acid do?
1) glycolysis
2) Anaerobic
3) cytoplasm
4) H back to pyruvate to make lactic acid
5) oxygen debt
6) Muscle fatigue
Citric Acid Cycle:
1) Describe the process?
2) Net result?
1) 2 carbon acetyl-4 carbon intermediate-6 carbon intermediate-broken down
2) Acetyl CoA broken down yeilding 4 CO2, 2ATP, 6 NADH2, and 2 FADH2
Electron Transport Chain:
1) Series of?
2) Anaolgy?
3) Produces?
4) What is Phosphorylaion?
5) What happens at the end of ETC?
1) Aerobic rx mitochondria, involves electron carriers (proteins), enzymes and coenzymes
2) hot potato
3) 30 atp from energy produced from ETC
4) process of attching phosphate to ADP
5) cooled down H added to O, produces water
ATP production from Fats:
1) Triglycerides can be broken down into what by what?
2) Carnitine Carrier shuttles what?
3) FA converted to what?
4) Enters CAC which does what?
1) Fatty acids, glycerol=lipolysis
2) fatty acids from cytosol into mitochondria
3) Acetyl-CoA (beta oxidation)
4) can yield more ATP than CHO b/c of long carbon chains
ATP Production from Protein:
1) Undergoes what?
2) 3 Factors that Dispose the Nitrogen Groups?
1) Deamination; lose the nitrogen or amine group form the AA
2) a. Urea converted to ammonia
b. Excreted in the urine
c. Stresses liver and kidneys
Protein metabolism:
1) After it is demaninated you are left with what?
2) Enters CAC as what?
3) Makes what 2 things?
1) Carbon skeleton
2) Intermediates
3) Pyruvate (Glucogenic)
and Acetyl CoA (Ketogenic)
Protein Metabolism:
1) What is gluconeogenises?
2) Liver is the only organ which has what?
3) What does the body use gluconeogensis?
4) What hormones stimulate gluconeogensis?
1) forming glucose from glucogenic Amino acids and other compounds
2) can complete this pathway
3) when you are out of carbs
4) glucagon-b/c it doesnt have glucose to keep up your blood sugar
Alcohol Metabolism:
1) Alcohol can be coverted to what?
2) Some acetyl CoA can enter what?
3) Excess acetyl CoA used to make what?
4) #3 results in?
1) Acetyl CoA through ADH and MEOS pathways
2) CAC
3) fatty acids and triglycerides
4) fatty liver
Regulation of Energy Metabolism:
1) High ATP Decreases what?
2) High ATP Promotes what?
3) High ADP Stimulates what?
1) genergy yielding rx (glycolysis)
2) anabolic reactions (protein synthesis which will use ATP)
3) Enery Yielding pathways, catabolic reactions
Regulation of Energy Metabolism:
1) What is the role of enzymes?
2) What is the result of low insulin?
3) What is the result of high insulin?
4) What is the results of vitamins and minerals?
1) High protein diet-body makes more enzymes associated with AA catabolism and gluconeogensis
2) glucogneogensis, lipolysis, high glucagon, and hunger
3) promotes cell uptake of glucose, glucogen creation, triglyceride formation (low glucagon)
4) B vitamins needed in cellular respiration
How do we regulate energy metabolism?
Liver, major role responds to hormones, makes use of vitamins, Urea goes to kidney changed to ammonia and excreted in urine
Fasting encourages what 3 things?
1) Glycogen breakdown
2) Fat breakdown
a. synthesis of ketone bodies
b. build up=ion imbalance, acidic encironment, come and death
3. gluconeogensis
Feasting Encourages what 4 things?
1) Glycogen synthesis
2) Fat synthesis
3) protein synthesis
4) urea synthesis
Inborn Errors of Metabolism:
1) Phenylketonuria?
2) Galactosemia?
3) Glycogen Storage Disease?
1) Unable to metabolize phenylalanine into tyrosine
2) unable to metabolize galactose
3) inability to convert glycogen to glucose