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57 Cards in this Set

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A psychologist spends her entire career studying how and why changes occur in people throughout their lives. This psychologist is most likely working in the field of__________ psychology.
developmental
Which of the following is a main disadvantage of the cross-sectional design?
Individuals of different ages are being compared to one another and they may differ in important fundamental ways.
The idea that social interactions are a key factor in children's cognitive development was an essential part of the theory of _________.
Lev Vygotsky
According to Carstenen and her colleagues, older people prefer the company of those who are emotionally close. This prediction is from the ________ theory.
socioemotional selectivity
What marks the beginning of adolescence?
puberty
Among humans, there is evidence that ________ may prevent the loss of neurons as they age.
being in an enriched environment
Which of the following statements about the ovum is true?
It is the largest cell in the female human body.
In Piaget's theory, the stage of development between birth and 2 years of age, in which the individual uses senses and motor abilities to interact with objects in the environment, is called the ______ stage.
sensorimotor
A child's conscience usually develops by the age of ________ years.
3
In the second trimester of a pregnancy, the developing baby is called ________.
a fetus
If a child successfully navigates this stage of psychosocial development, they will make decisions and act independently.
autonomy versus doubt
The period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult, is called ________.
adolescence
The growth spurt for girls typically begins at what age?
lower birth weight and smaller head size
________refers to heredity and __________ refers to environmental influences.
Nature; nurture
The sounds t, th, and sh are ______.
phonemes
Ethan, a 3-year-old, asks his mom to cut a pizza pie into 12 rather than 8 pieces because he is "really hungry." On the basis of this example, it is most appropriate to conclude that Ethan ________.
does not understand conservation
Puberty is defined as _________.
the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development is stimulated by hormonal changes.
Your little brother has a big ball of clay. While he watches, you roll the ball of clay into a long snake-like shape. He begins to cry because he thinks he has less clay now. Which of Piaget's stages is your brother likely to be in?
preoperational
Lawrence Kohlberg is credited with advancing our understanding of how children approach________, or situations where children have to entertain the pros and cons for a set of possible actions.
moral dilemmas
What is another name for a child's inability to take another's point of view?
egocentrism
Attachment often first becomes evident at around _______ of age, when separation anxiety appears.
six months
After the age of 50 years, people have an increased difficulty hearing _______ sounds.
high frequency
If a child is exposed to the "Strange Situation," then he or she ________.
will be left with a stranger or alone in an unfamiliar situation
________, which occurs in the ________ period of cognitive development, is the ability to understand that stimuli exist even when they cannot be immediately perceived.
Object permanence; preoperational
________ refers to the beliefs, desires, values, and attributes that define a person to himself or herself.
self concept
Jean Piaget is noted for his theory of ______.
cognitive development
Jevon and his sister Lea are opening their presents on Christmas morning. Lea opens up a beautiful doll with a dress and lovely blond hair. Jevon says, "Ew, that is a girl's toy." Jevon clearly has some established gender _______ for playtime behavior.
roles
A baby's language that consists of repetition of consonant-vowel combinations is called ______.
babbling
In Erikson's __________stage of psychosocial development, preschoolers attempt to develop a sense of purpose and direction.
wss
What is another name for gametes?
sex cells
Elijah is a 3-year-old little boy who likes to spread his peas and carrots all over his plate. After spreading out his food, he asks for more. His mom pushes all the food together and Elijah continues to eat. Which period of cognitive development is Elijah in?
Preoperational
In contrast to Piaget, Vygotsky emphasized the role of ________ during development.
social interactions
Like any 4-month-old, Amy depends on her parents to feed her and to change her diapers. When Amy cries, her devoted parents quickly respond to her needs. According to Erikson, Amy is developing a sense of ___________.
trust
Professor Grant is interested in studying the development of a sense of humor. She collects data from groups of 6-year-olds, 16-year-olds, 26-year-olds, and 46-year-olds. What type of research design is Professor Grant using?
cross-sectional design
Shelley and Julie are mothers who each have a three-month-old infant. Shelley tells Julie, "My son is so fussy," to which Julie replies, "That's funny-my son is so easy." It appears that Shelley and Julie are discussing their newborns' ________.
temperaments
According to Gilligan, Kohlberg's theory of moral development
should only be applied to males.
Erik Erikson's stages of ________ development consider the effects of maturation and learning on personality and relationships.
psychosocial
According to some research, children develop their understanding of gender roles quite early, perhaps by the age of __________.
2 yrs
What was Mary Ainsworth trying to determine when she devised an experimental method called the Strange Situation?
the nature of attachment between caretakers and babies
Which of the following is a potential reason why the trend is for puberty to start earlier?
additives in food products
What is another name for mental structures that organize sensory and perceptual input and connect it to the appropriate responses?
schemes
Professor Sanchez is interested in studying development of motor skills. She collects data from 200 1-year-olds and follows and assesses them for a period of 5 years. What type of research design is Professor Sanchez using?
longitudinal design
Research has found that some aspects of memory tend to become poorer during our later years, at least partly because parts of the brain that produce the neurotransmitter _________ become impaired with age.
acetylcholine
How does the sperm reach the egg in order to fertilize it?
The muscle contractions of the uterus move it.
A researcher who selects a sample of people of varying ages and studies them at one point in time is, by definition, using the ______ method.
crosss sesvkj
What do we learn from the research of Meaney and his colleagues with rats?
Handling rat pups during the first days after birth had an impact on their responses to stressful events.
Which part of the brain is probably also responsible for the difficulty that older adults have with working memory and strategizing?
the frontal lobes
According to Erikson, if an elementary school child fails to succeed in developing a sense of competence and ability to work with others, the result may be the development of a sense of _________.
inferiority
The assumption that we are born with a proclivity to develop and use language is known as __________.
nativism
The visual cliff experiment ________.
determined that infants can perceive depth before they can talk
A narrow window of time when a certain type of learning or some aspect of development is possible is called a __________ period.
critiitical
According to researchers, which types of sounds do babies find the least appealing?
dissonant sounds
What is the sequence of stages of moral development as identified by Lawrence Kohlberg?
preconventional, conventional, postconventional
Researchers using the habituation technique have found that infants may be able to perceive visual depth cues as early as __________ of age.
2-3 months
Which of the following language milestones is the latest to occur?
subtle pragmatics
Infant reflexes are______.
innate involuntary behavior patterns
When the sole of Baby Joshua's foot is stroked, his big toe flexes and the other toes fan out. This is known as the ________ reflex.
Babinski