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83 Cards in this Set

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developmental psychology

the psychological specialty that studies how


organisms grow and change over time as


the result of biological and environmental


influences.

nature-nurture issue

the long-standing discussion over the


relative importance of nature (heredity) and


nurture (environment) in their influence on


behavior and mental processes.

twin study

a means of separating the effect of nature


and nurture by which investigators compare characteristics of adopted children with those


of individuals in their biological and adoptive families.

innate ability

Capability of an infant that is inborn or


biologically based.

prenatal period

the developmental period before birth

zygote

a fertilized egg

embryo

in humans, the name for developing


organism during the first 8 weeks after


conception

placenta

the organ interface between the embryo


or fetus and the mother. The placenta


separates the bloodstreams, but it allows


the exchange of nutrients and waste products.

teratogen

substances from the environment, including


viruses, drugs, and other chemicals, that


can damage the dwelling organism during


the prenatal period.

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

a set of physical and mental problems seen


in children whose mothers drink excessive amounts of alcohol during pregnancy.

neonatal period

in humans, the neonatal (newborn) period


extends through the first month after birth.

mimicry

The imitation of other people's behaviors

synchronicity

the close coordination between the gazing,


vocalist, touching, and smiling of infants


and caregivers

innate reflex

reflexive response present at birth

infancy

in humans, infancy spans the time between


the end of the neonatal period and the


establishment of language- usually at about


18 months to 2 years.

sensitive period

a span of time during which the organism


is especially responsive to stimuli of a


particle sort. Organisms may have sensitive


periods for exposure to certain hormones


or chemicals; similarly, they may have sensitive periods for learning language or receiving


the visual stimulation necessary for normal


development of vision

synaptic pruning

the process of trimming unused brain


connections, making neurons available


for future development.

maturation

the process by which the genetic program


manifests itself over time

genetic leash

Edward Wilson's term for the constraints


placed on development by heredity

contact comfort

stimulation and reassurance derived from


the physical touch of a caregiver

attachment

the enduring socio-emotional relationship


between a child and a parent or other


regular caregiver.

imprinting

a primitive form of learning in which some


young animals follow and form an attachment


to the first moving object they see and hear

secure attachment

the attachment style of children who are


related and comfortable with their caregivers


and tolerant of stranger and new experiences


- as contrasted with children who are insecurely attached.

seperation anxiety

a common pattern of distress seen in young


children when separated from their caregivers.

anxious-ambivalent attachment

one of two primary response patterns seen


in insecurely attached children in which a


child want contact with the caregiver, shows


excessive distress when serparated from


the caregiver, and proves difficult to console


even when reunited.

avoidant attachment

one of two primary response patterns seen in


insecurely attached children in which a child shows no interest in contract with the


caregiver and displays neither distress when


separated from the caregivers nor happiness when reunited.

psychosocial stage

in Erikson's theory, the developmental stages


refer to eight major challenges that appear


successively across the lifespan, which require


an individual to rethink his or her foals, as well


as relationships with others.

trust

the major developmental goal during the


first 18 months of life. According to Erikson's


theory, the child must choose between


trusting or not trusting others.

self-control

the ability to delay instant gratification


in pursuit of longer-range positive outcomes.

executive function

cognitive abilities in the frontal lobes


necessary for couples thinking, planning,


and goal-directed behavior.

language acquisition device (LAD)

A biologically organized mental structure


in the brain that facilities the learning of


language because (according to Chomsky) it


is innately programmed with some of the


fundamental rules of grammar.

babbling

the production of repetitive syllables,


characteristic of the early stages of


language acquisition.

grammar

the rules of a language, specifying how to


use the elements of language and word order


to produce understandable sentences.

Telegraphic speech

short, simple sequences of nouns and


verbs without plurals, tenses, or function


words like "the" and "of"- somewhat like the


language once used in telegrams.

morpheme

a meaningful unit of language that makes up words. Some whole words are morphemes.


(example:word); other morphemes include grammatical components that alter a word's meaning (examples: -ed, -ing, and un-)

cognitive development

the global term for the development of


thought processes from childhood through


adulthood

stage theory

an explanation of development that


emphasized distinctive or rather abrupt


changes. A stage theory of cognitive


development, then, emphasizes revolutionary changes in thought processes.

schema

in Piaget's theory, a mental structure or program that guides a developing child's thought.

assimilation

a mental process that incorporates new


information into existing schemas

accommodation

a mental process that modifies schemas in


order to include (or accommodate) new


information.

sensorimotor stage

the first stage in Piaget's theory, during


which the child relies heavily on innate motor


responses to stimuli.

sensorimotor intelligence

Piaget's term for the infant's approach to


the world, relying on relatively physical


(motor) repsonses to sensory experience.

object permanence

the knowledge that objects exist independently of one's own actions or awareness.

goal-directed behavior

an ability that emerges during the


sensorimotor period by which infants


develop the ability to keep a simple goal in


mind as they pursue it.

mental representation

the ability to form internal images of objects and events.

preoperational stage

the second stage in Piaget's theory, marked by well-developed mental representation and the use of language.

egocentrism

the Piaget's theory, the inability to realize


that there are other viewpoints beside


one's own.

animistic thinking

a pre operational mode of thought in


which inanimate objects are imagined to


have life and mental processes.

irreversibility

the inability, in the preoperational child, to think through a series of event or mental operations and then mentally reverse the steps.

centration

a pre operational thought pattern involving


the inability to take into account more than


one factor at a time

conservation

the understanding the the physical properties


of an object or substance do not change


when appearances change but nothing is


added or taken away.

concrete operational stage

the third of Piaget's stages, when a child


understands conservation but still is incapable


of abstract thought

concrete operational stage

the third of Piaget's stages, when child


understands conservation but still is


incapable of abstract thought.

mental operation

solving a problem by manipulating images in one's mind.

theory of mind

an awareness that other people's behavior


may nbc influences by beliefs, desires, and


emotions that differ from one's own.

wave metaphor

a way of conceptualizing cognitive


development as occurring more gradually-


in "waves"- rather than abruptly, as the stage


theory suggest.

temperament

An individual's characteristic manner of


behavior or reaction- assumed to have a


strong genetic basis.

socialization

the lifelong process of shaping an individual's


behavior patterns. values, standards, skills,


attitudes, and motives to conform to those


regarded as desirable in a particular society.

authoritarian parent

one of the four parenting styles, characterized by demands for conformity and obedience, with little tolerance for discussion of rules, which the parent enforces with punishment or threats of punishment .

authoritative parent

one of the four parenting styles, characterized


by high expectations of the children, which


the parent enforces with consequences rather than punitive actions. Authoritative parents


combine high standards with warmth and


respect for the child's.

permissive parent

one of the four parenting styles, characterized


by setting few rules and allowing children to make their own decisions. While they may be


caring and communicative, permissive parents give most decision-making responsibility to


their children

uninvolved parent

one of the four parenting styles, characterized


by indifference or rejection, sometimes to the point of neglect or abuse.

autonomy

in Erikson's theory, autonomy is the major


developmental task of the second stage in


childhood. Achieving autonomy involves


developing a sense of independence, as


opposed to being plagued by self-doubt.

initiative

in Erikson's theory, initiative is the major


developmental task in the third state of


childhood. Initiative is characterized by the


ability to initiate activities oneself, rather


than merely responding to others or feeling


guilt at not measuring up to other's expectations.

Industry

Erikson's term for a sense of confidence


that characterized the main goal of the fourth


developmental stave in childhood. Children


who do not develop industry (confidence) will slip into a self-perception of inferiority.

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder


(ADHD)

A psychological disorder involving poor

impulse control, difficulty concentrating on a


task for a sustained period of time, high


distractibility, and excessive activity.


adolescence

in industrial societies, a developmental


period beginning at puberty and ending


(less clearly) at adulthood.

rite of passage

social ritual that marks the tradition between


developmental stages, especially between


childhood and adulthood.

puberty

the onset of serial maturity

menarche

the onset of menstruation

body image

an individual's perception of and feeling


about their physical appearance

formal operational stage

the last of Piaget's stages, during which


abstract thought appears.

stage of moral reasoning

distinctive way of thinking bout ethical and


moral problems. According to Kohlberg,


moral reasoning progresses through a series


of developmental stages that are similar to


Piaget's stages of cognitive development.

Identity

in Erikson's theory, identity is a sense of who


one is- a coherent self. Developing a sense


of identity is the main goal of adolescence.

revolution in aging

a change in the way people think about aging


in modern industrialized nations. This new


perspective grows expedited of increased longevity,


better heath care, and more lifestyle choices available to older adults. It has also simulated


the psychological study of adult development.

Emerging adulthood

a transition period between adolescence


and adulthood.

peer marriage

marriage in which the couple see each other


as partners and friends, as contrasted


with the other stereotypic roles of


"husband" and "wife"

generativily

the process of making a commitment beyond oneself to family, work, society, or future generations. In Erikson's theory, generativity is the developmental challenge of midlife.

transition

a period of time during which an individual


redefines or transforms a life role, goal, value,


or lifestyle.

ego-integrity

in Erikson's theory, the developmental task


of late adulthood- involving the ability to


look back on life without regret and to enjoy


a sense of wholeness

Alzheimers Disease

a degenerative brain disease, usually notice


first by its debilitating effects on memory.

selective social interaction

Choosing to restrict the number of one's


social contacts to those who are the most


gratifying

Adoption Study

a method of separating the effect of nature and nurture by which investigators compare characteristics of adopted children with those of individuals in their biological and adoptive families.