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40 Cards in this Set

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Rehearsal serves to:


A. Refresh sensory memory.


b. retrieve specific information exclusively


c. keep information in sensory memory


d. transfer information into long-term memory

a. refresh sensory memory

Which of the following forms of memory refers to memory for skills and habits?


A. episodic memory


b. semantic memory


c. declarative memory


d. procedural memory



d. procedural memory

Which of the following searches explicit memory?

d. Trying to remember a name encountered or learned about previously

Why is it so difficult to retrieve information from long-term memory?

b. There is so much information being stored in long term memory

Which of the following is true of the neuroscience of memory?

C. Long term potentiation thing



Material in memory storage has to be located and brought into awareness to be usefuol This process is known as_____.


A. encoding


b. potentiation


c. storage


d. retrieval

D. Retrieval

Long-term potentiation refers to the process whereby:


A. memories become fixed and stable in the long term


b. the number of synaptic and dendritic connections between neurons increases with experience


c. neural pathways become activated more easily as learning occurs


d. disturbing memories seem to gain in intensity over time

C. neural pathways become more easily activated as learning occurs

Some psychologists consider classical conditioning to be a form of implicit memory. Which of the following is probably the best reason for suggesting that classical conditioning is a type of implicit memory?


A. classical conditioning allows us to learn from experience


B. classical conditioning is one mechanism whereby we learn actions and skills that we can recollect intentionally


C. classical conditioning requires conscious awareness


D. Classical conditioning occurs outside awareness.

D. Classical conditioning occurs outside awareness

Almost everybody has had the feeling of knowing the answer to a question but not being quite able to say it. This is called the tipofthetongue phenomenon and is a failure of:


A. storage


b. rention


c. retrieval


d. trace consolidation

C. retrieval

Which of the following expressions best reflects the capacity of short-term memory?


a. about seven +/- two chunks


b. one or two items


c. unlimited


d. about a dozen chunks



a. about seven +/- two chunks

The study of sensory memory is associated with:


a. george miller


b. elizabeth loftus


c. George sperling


d. Hermann Ebbinghaus

C. George sperling

Which of the follwoing is true of the neuroscience of memory?


A. the amygdala is especially involved with memories involving emotion


b. the hippocampus is located within the brain's frontal loves


c. The amygdala aids in the inital encoding of information acting as a kind of neurological email system


d. The initial encoding of information aided by the hippocampus is passed along to the amygdala

A. the amygdala is especially involved with memories involving emotion

Which of the following sequences best reflects the order in which memory processes occur, from first to last?


A. Storage- encoding- retrieval


b. Encoding- Storage- Retrieval


C. Storage- retrieval encoding


d. Encoding retrieval storage

B. Encoding storage retrieval

Rehearsal refers to the:


A. inability to recall information that one realizes one knows


b. repetition of information that has enetered short term memory


c. grouping of information that can be stored in short term memory


d. memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past.

b. Repetition of information that has entered short-term memory

_____ is a memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of alternatives


a. recall


b. recognition


c. chunk


d. rehearsal

b. Recogniton

____ Memory refers to the initial momentary storage of information that lasts only an instant


a. sensory


b. working


c. long-term


d. short- term



A. sensory



The first attempts to scientifically study forgetting were made by the german psychologists

Ebbinghaus

Memories of which we are not consciously aware of are called _____ memories.

a. implicit


b. internal


c. subconscious


d. subliminal

D. implicit


Flashbulb memories:



Select one:



a. are remarkably accurate, even years after the initial event.


b. are generally less accurate than memories for more mundane events because of the emotion surrounding the original event.


c. typically concern major, unexpected public or personal events.


d. must be due to special encoding mechanisms for emotionally charged events.

c. typically concern major unexpected public or personal events


The recency effect refers to the fact that:



Select one:



a. rehearsed items are more likely to be remembered than unrehearsed items.


b. the most personally relevant items on a list are most likely to be remembered.


c. the first several items on a list are remembered better than the items in the middle of the list.


d. items presented late in a list are remembered better than items presented in the middle of a list.

d. items presented late in a list are remembered better than items presented in the middle of a list.


Our ability to recall an item from a list depends on where, in the list, the item occurs. This is the _____ effect.



Select one:



a. serial position


b. list memory


c. cereal position


d. item order

a. serial position


Why is the term engram generally discouraged by psychologists studying memory?



Select one:



a. There is probably no single site or process in the brain corresponding to a particular memory.


b. Any given memory probably involves many simultaneous brain processes and locations because a stimulus contains a single sensory aspect.


c. The term engram typically involves physical memory that corresponds only to sensory memory.


d. Psychologists do not believe it is possible to identify the physical brain bases of a memory.

A. there is probably no single site or precess in the brain corresponding to a particular memory


_____ rehearsal occurs when information is considered and organized in some fashion.



Select one:



a. Primary


b. Maintenance


c. Rote


d. Elaborative

d. Elaborative


The concept of working memory represents a contemporary conceptualization of _____ memory.



Select one:



a. long-­term


b. short­-term


c. declarative


d. sensory

b. short term

Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of stages in the three­stage model of memory?



Select one:



a. Short­-term memory - sensory memory - long-­term memory


b. Working memory - short-­term memory - long­-term memory


c. Short­-term memory- working memory -long-­term memory


d. Sensory memory - short-­term memory - long­-term memory

d. Sensory memory - short-­term memory - long­-term memory


Which of the following best describes the effect of stress on working memory capacity?



Select one:



a. Stress increases the capacity of working memory dramatically.


b. Stress can reduce the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity.


c. Stress increases the capacity of working memory only marginally.


d. Stress has no effect on the capacity of working memory.

b. Stress can reduce the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity.


A stimulus that facilitates the recall of information from long-term memory is called a:



Select one:



a. retrieval cue.


b. conservation.


c. flashbulb memory.


d. chunking.

a. retrieval cue.


_____ is a phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept later makes it easier to recall related information, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept.



Select one:



a. Flashbulb


b. Rehearsal


c. Priming


d. Chunking

c. Priming


_____ memory is the memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts.



Select one:



a. Episodic


b. Semantic


c. Non-­declarative


d. Procedural

b. Semantic


The levels-­of-­processing approach suggests:



Select one:



a. that the lesser the intensity of the initial processing of information, the more likely we are to remember it.


b. that specific information will be retained for longer when the level of information processing is deeper.


c. that when the initial level of processing of specific information is shallow, the information will be retained for longer.


d. the existence of the three separate memory stores: sensory memory, short-­term memory, and long-­term memory.

b. the specific information will be retained for longer when the the level of processing is deeper


The process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information is known as _____.



Select one:



a. cognition


b. rehearsal


c. memory


d. perception

c. memory


The primacy effect refers to the fact that:



Select one:



a. items presented late in a list are remembered better than items presented earlier.


b. items in a list which have the greatest emotional impact are those with the greatest likelihood of recall.


c. the most important items in a list are remembered better than the less important items.


d. items presented early in a list are remembered better than items in the middle of the list.

d. items presented early in a list are remembered better than items in the middle of the list.


A typical multiple-­choice question on a psychology test is an example of both a _____ and an _____ test of memory.



Select one:



a. recognition; explicit


b. recall; explicit


c. recall; implicit


d. recognition; implicit

a. recognition; explicit


Grouping pieces of information together to expand the effective capacity of short­-term memory is termed _____.



Select one:



a. chunking


b. compacting


c. consolidating


d. clumping

a. chunking


_____ memory is defined as a memory system that holds information temporarily while actively manipulating and rehearsing that information.



Select one:



a. Long­-term


b. Semantic


c. Working


d. Declarative

c. Working


As you work on a complex multiplication problem in your head, the numbers you are manipulating are in your _____ memory, and the multiplication tables you are drawing from are in _____ memory.



Select one:



a. working; sensory


b. working; long­-term


c. sensory; working


d. long-­term; working

b. working; long­-term


The distinction between long­ and short-­term memory:



Select one:



a. has failed to gain empirical support in memory research.


b. is somewhat artificial.


c. is supported by the effects of certain kinds of brain damage.


d. is supported by the distinction between declarative memory and procedural memory.

c. is supported by the effects of certain kinds of brain damage.


Which of the following refers to declarative memory?



Select one:



a. Memory for how to do things


b. Memory for habits


c. Memory for names


d. Memory for how to do things

c. Memory for names


A schema is:



Select one:



a. a form of proactive interference.


b. a conceptual framework for interpreting a situation.


c. an important result of decay.


d. an item that has been forgotten.

b. a conceptual framework for interpreting a situation.


How does use of a schema improve memory?



Select one:



a. A schema improves memory for details.


b. A schema provides a framework to use in interpreting a situation.


c. A schema helps avoid making errors in remembering the details of a situation.


d. A schema prevents the erosion of implicit memories.

B. A schema provides a framework to use in interpreting a situation.