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36 Cards in this Set

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“Collection of individuals who possess a collective identity, have common goals andobjectives, share a common fate, develop structure patterns ofinteraction and modes of communication, exhibit personal andtask interdependence, reciprocate interpersonalattraction, and considerthemselves to be a group”

Sport Team

1. Independent

2. Reactive

3. Coactive

4. Interactive

Types of teams

Individuals compete separately


Individualsrespond to teammate’sactions (notnecessarily at same time)


Individualscompete side by side with limitedinteraction


Individualscontinuouslyinteract with one another throughout contest


1. Forming

2. Storming

3. Norming

4. Performing

5. (adjourning)

Tuckman & Jensen's stages of team formation

Social comparison (assessing strengths & weaknesses). Developing group identification (feeling like part of the group). Identification is formed at the end when the final team list is developed


Polarization, conflict, rebellion. Members vie for control, status, role clarity, position


Getting organized – group comes together. Group cohesion; group identity defined.


Directs energy toward achieving goals. Close rapport among members


Groups end/cease. Go separate ways


Individuals don't identify with group


Individuals selected form identity

Group Identification

Focus on team production/contribution

Team Productivity

Members demand for recognition for contributions


Return to decay, group change, abandonment


Team acquaints and establishes ground rules. Formalities are preserved and members are treated as strangers


Members start to communicate their feelings but still view themselves as individuals rather than part of the team. They resist control by group leaders and show hostility


People feel part of the team and realize that they can achieve work if they accept other viewpoints


The team works in an open and trusting atmosphere where flexibility is the key and hierarchy is of life importance


The team conducts an assessment of the year and implements a plan for transitioning roles and recognizing members' contributions


ActualProductivity = PotentialProductivity –Coordination and Motivation Losses

Ringlemann Effect

“occurswhen people exert lesseffort when working in teams than when working alone”. Increases when athletes feel their contributions are not valuable

Social Loafing

- Video analysis

- Reinforcing roles

- Develop sub-goals

How to combat social loafing

1. Appropriate leadership

2. Suitable members

3. Commitment to team

4. Concern to achieve

5. Effective work methods

6. Well-organized team procedures

7. Creative strength

8. Critique without ransor

9. Positive intergroup relations

10. Constructive climate

Effective Teams

Coaches select variety of leadership styles. Effective leader is knowing when not to lead. Enlist team personnel to contribute

Appropriate Leadership

Members proud of affiliation, believe in their role. Having the right people. Coaches must facilitate belonging

Suitable Members

Each athlete/team member makes effort to develop necessary skills. Find pleasure in success of teammates and team

Commitment to team

Aware & agreement of team objectives. Buy in through involvement (e.g. expectations). Team goals precede individual goals

Concern to achieve

Develop effective system to solve conflict. Open communication/expectations

Effective work methods

Clearly defined roles. Involvement in decision-making

Well-Organized Team Procedures

Capacity & motivation to create new ideas. Innovative risk-taking planned, accepted, rewarded

Creative Strength

Coachfacilitates instructionyet permits & encouragespeer teaching

Positive intergroup relations

Securemembers open to giving/receivingfeedback

Critique w/o ransor

Relaxedand non-threateningatmosphere

Constructive Climate