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117 Cards in this Set

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Central Nervous System (CNS) contains
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) contains
Cranial nerves and spinal nerves which include nerves of autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Nerve tissue
Consists of neurons and cells called neroglia
All neuron cell bodies are found in the _______, _________, or within the ________.
brain, spinal cord, trunk of the body
What carries the electrical nerve impulse?
Cell body and axon
In PNS axons and dendrites are wrapped in?
Schwann cells
Schwann cells form the
Myelin sheath
Spaces between the Schwann cells along the axon are called?
Node of Ranvier
The nuclei and sytoplasm of the Schwann cells are outside the myelin shealth and form the?
Neurolemma
Axons may regrow through the tunnels provided by the
Neurolemma
What forms the myelin sheaths in the CNS?
Oligodendrocytes
Oligodendrocytes
Produce the myelin shealth to electrically insulate neurons of the CNS
Microglia
Capable of movement and phagcytosis of pathogens and damaged tissues
Astrocytes
Contribute to the BBB, prevents potentially toxic waste products in the blood from diffusing out into brain tissue, disadvantage: some useful medications cannot cross it which become important during brain infection, inflammation, or other disease.
Ependyma
Line the ventricles of the brain; many of the cells are ciliated; involved in the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.
Synapses
When axon of neuron must transmit an impulse to dendrite or cell body of another neuron, impulse crosses gap called synapse.
The end of the axon is called
the synaptic end bulb and contains neurotransmitters that release into synapse by electrical impulse
Types of neurons
Sensory, motor or interneuron
Sensory (afferent)
Transmit impulses FROM receptors TO the CNS. Specialized to detect external or internal changes and generate electrical impulses
Sensory neurons from skin, skeletal muscle, and jts are called
SOMATIC
Neurons from receptors in internal organs are called
visceral sensory neurons
Motor neurons (efferent)
Transmit impulses FROM the CNS TO effectors (muscles and glands)
Motor neurons to skeletal muscles are called
SOMATIC
Motor neurons to smooth muscles and cardiac muscle and glands are called
Visceral
Sensory and motor neurons make up the
PNS
Interneurons are found entirely within the
CNS
Learning Tip:
Afferent: A is for affect or sense
Efferent: E is for effect or action
A nerve is a group of
Peripheral axons, dendrites, or both with blood vessels and connective tissue.
Most peripheral nerves are
Mixed, containing sensory and motor neurons

Ex: PURELY sensory nerve is the optic nerve for vision, the autonomic nerves are purely motor nerves
A nerve tract is
Thick myelinated neurons within the CNS, often called WHITE MATTER
Nerve impulse
Also called action potential is an electrical charge brought by movement of ions across neuron cell membrane.
When a neuron is not carrying and impulse it is in a state of
Polarization with a positive charge outside the membrane and relatively negative charge inside membrane
Sodium ions are more abundant
outside the cell
Potassium and negative ions are more abundant
inside the cell
A stimulus makes the membrane permeable to sodium ions which rush into the cell making the inside
positive and the outside relatively negative
Reversal of charges is called
depolarization and spreads from the point of stimulus along the entire neuron membrane
Following depolarization the membrane becomes permeable to
K ions, this is called repolarization and restores the positive charge outside and the negative charge inside
Sodium and potassium pumps return the sodium ions back outside and the potassium ions inside and the neuron is polarized again and is ready
to respond to another stimulus
Spinal cord
Transmits impulses to and from brain. Inside vertebral canal formed by vertebrae and extends from the foramen magnum of the occipital bone to the intervertebral disk b/w first and second lumbar vertebrae.
The spinal nerves emerge from the
intervertebral formaina
Grey matter
Surrounded by white matter, and is where cell bodies of motor neurons and interneurons are located
White matter
myelinated axons
Ascending tracts transmit
sernsory impulses to the brain
Descending tracts transmit
motor impulses from the brain to motor neurons
Central canal of the spinal cord
small tunnel that is continuous with ventricles of the brain and contain CSF
Spinal nerves
31 pairs
How many cervical spinal nerve pairs?
8 pairs
How many thoracic spinal nerve pairs?
12 pairs
How many lumbar spinal nerve pairs?
5 pairs
How many sacral spinal nerve pairs?
5 pairs
How many coccygeal spinal nerve pairs?
1 very small pair
Nerves are often referred to by letter and number for example:
Second cervical nerve is C2 and tenth thoracic is T10 and so on
Cervical nerves supply
The back of the head the neck, shoulders, arms, diaphragm (the phrenic nerves)
The first and second thoracic nerves also contribute to
peripheral nerves in the arms
The remaining thoracic nerves supply
the trunk of the body
The lumbar and sacral nerves supply
the hips, pelvic cavity, and legs
The small coccygeal pair supply area
around the coccyx
Each spinal nerve has
two roots which are neurons entering or leaving the spinal cord
Dorsal root ganglion is
an enlargeent of this root that contains the cell bodies of these sensory neurons
The ventral root is the motor root; it is made of
motor neurons that carry impulses from the spinal cord to muscles or glands
When the two roots merge the nerve thus formed is a
mixed nerve
Reflex arc
1) Receptor detects change and generates impulse
2) Sensory neurons transmit impulses from receptors to the CNS
3) The CNS contains one or more synapses and the interneurons that may be part of pathway
4) Motor neurons transmit impulses from the CNS to the effector
5) The effector performs its characteristic action
Spinal cord reflexes include
stretch reflexes and flexor reflexes
Stretch reflex
muscle that is stretched automatically contracts
Flexor reflexes
withdrawal reflex, stimulus is something painful and the response is to pull away
Parts of the brain
medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebrum
Ventricles
Four cavities within brain, two lateral vents, third is midline with thalamus and fourth midline b/w brainstem an cerebellum.
Each ventricle contains
Choroid plexus which forms cerebrospinal fluid from blood plasma
Medulla
Regulates heart rates, resps for breathing, blood pressure. Has reflexes for sneezing, coughing, swallowing, and vomitting.
Pons
Two resp centers work with medulla to produce normal breathing rhythm
Midbrain
Regulates visual reflexes and auditory reflexes and righting reflexes that keep the head upright and contribute to balance
Cerebellum
Coordination, maintain balance and equilibrium
Hypothalmus
Produces ADH and oxytocin stored in ppg. Production of releasing hormones like GHRH, regulate body temp by shivering or sweating, feelings of full or hungry, increased heart rate
Thalamus
Sensory pathways to brain except olfactory, can supress sensations to promote cerebrum to concentrate on more important sensations
Cerebrum
Largest part of brain. R and L hemispheres connected by corpus callosum
Cerebral cortext
Surface of the cerebrum, gray matter consisting mainly cell bodies of neurons
Gyri
Give neurons more surface area
Fissures (deeper)
Folds in brain
Fissures (shallower) Sulci
Folds in brain
Frontal lobes
Motor areas, left lobe has Broca's motor speech area involved w/ speaking
Patietal lobes
Sensory areas for skin and muscle sense and taste
Temporal lobes
Oldfactory and hearing L side has speech
Occipital lobes
visual areas and impulses from retinas of the eyes. Perception and interpretation of sight occurs here
In all lobes
Learn, remember, think, personalities,
Grey matter called basal ganglia
Regulation of muscle tone, inhibiting tremor, use of accessory movements such as swinging arms when walking
Meninges
3 layes covering CNS
Outer most- dura mater
Middle- arachnoid mater (weblike)
Inner- pia mater (thin tissue on surface of brain)
B/w arachnoid mater and the pia mater is the
subarachnoid space which contains CSF
CSF
Permits exchange of nutrients and wastes b/w blood and CNS
Cranial Nerve 1- Olfactory
Smell
Cranial Nerve 2- Optic
Sight
Cranial Nerve 3- Oculomotor
Dilate pupils
Cranial Nerve 4- Trochlear
Move eyeball
Cranial Nerve 5- Trigeminal
Sense in face
Cranial Nerve 6- Abducens
Movement of eyeball
Cranial Nerve 7- Facial
Smile
Cranial Nerve 8- Vestibulocochlear
Hearing
Cranial Nerve 9- Glossopharyngeal
Taste
Cranial Nerve 10- Vagus
Voice
Cranial Nerve 11- Accessory
Speaking
Cranial Nerve 12- Hypoglossal
Movement of tongue
ANS
Part of PNS affecting smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glands. Two divisions sympathetic and parasympathetic
Sympathetic Division
In thoracic and some lumbar segments of spinal cord. Fear, anxiety, exercise. ^ HR, vasodilation. Acetylcholine and norepi
Parasympathetic
Rest/digest
In cranial nerves 3,7,9,10
Basic Neurological Assessment
1) LOC
2) VS
3)Pupil response
4) Strength of grips
5) Ability to sense touch
Glasgow Coma Scale
Ranging from 3-15
Eye opening, verbal response, motor response
Pupils unequal in size
Anisocoria
Nystagmus is
involuntary movement of the eyes
Where is lumbar puncture usually inserted at
L3-4 or L4-5 in adults
Dysarthria
Diffuculty speaking
If pt has aphasia (loss of conciousness) assume they cant understand
do not stand till i get back. Will fall
Which neurons carry impulses from CNS to effectors?
A) Mixed
B) Motor
C) Afferent
D) Sensory
B) Motor
Which structure in the CNS regulates body temp?
A)Hypothalmus
B) Temporal lobe
C) Pons
D) Pituitary
A) Hypothalmus
Which of the following is a symptom of increasing intracranial pressure that should be reported immediately to the primary care provider?
A) Contricted pupils
B)Decreasing LOC
C) Narrowing pulse pressure
D) Bradypnea
B)Decreasing LOC
What are the normal effects of aging in the CNS? Select all that apply.
A) Increase postual stability
B) Reduced blood flow to the brain
C) Impaired short term memory
D) Sleep disturbances
E) Loss of deep tendon reflexes
B) Reduced blood flow to the brain
C) Impaired short term memory
D) Sleep disturbances
Pt asks what to expect when she has an angiogram. Which response by the nurse is best?
A) "A small needle will be inserted into your spinal column to withdraw fluid for examination."
B) "You will be in a large machine that uses magnetic energy to create images; it has a noisy knocking sound."
C) "Electrodes will be placed on your head to monitor electrical activity in your brain."
D) "A catheter will be placed into your femoral artery, and dye will be injected that will make your vessels show up on xray."
D) "A catheter will be placed into your femoral artery, and dye will be injected that will make your vessels show up on xray."
Which of the following activities should be encouraged when a patient returns from a CT scan using a contrast medium?
A)Ambulation
B)Drink fluids
C)Turning side to side
D)Coughing and deep breathing
B)Drink fluids
Which of the following nursing interventions can help prevent footdrop?
A) Position the patient in the left lateral position
B) Provide daily foot massage
C) Apply high top tennis shoes
D) Maintain the patient in an upright position as much as possible
C) Apply high top tennis shoes