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117 Cards in this Set

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chromatin
structural component of the nucleus, composed of nucleic acids and proteins
chromosome
threadlike structures within the nucleus composed of DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
molecules that hold genetic information
diaphragm
muscular wall that divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
metabolism
sum of physical and chemical changes that take place in a cell or an organism
organelle
cellular structure that provides a specialized function
levels of organization from least to most complex
cell , tissue, organ, system, organism
cell
smallest structural and functional unit of life
3 main parts of cells
cell membrane , cytoplasm, nucleus
tissue
groups of cells that performs a specialized activity
4 major tissues
epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue , nervous tissue
epithelial tissue
secreting portions of gland and arranged in continuous sheets
connective tissue
supports and connect other tissues and organs
muscle tissue
contractile tissue of the body
nervous tissue
transmits electrical impulses
histology
The study of tissues
organs
body structures that perform specialized functions. they are composed of two or more tissue types
body system
composed of varying numbers of organs and accessory structures that have similar or related functions.
organism
The highest level of organization
anatomical position
The body standing erect and the face forward, arms by side, with palms facing forward
common planes of body
midsagittal, coronal, transverse
major body cavities
dorsal (posterior) , ventral (anterior)
midsagittal
median , right and left halves
coronal
frontal, anterior and posterior aspects
transverse
horizontal, superior (upper) and inferior (lower) aspects
abdominopelvic cavities
quadrants and regions
dorsal
cranial & spinal
ventral
thoracic & abdominopelvic
abdominopelvic quadrants
Right upper, left upper, right lower, left lower
RUQ
Right upper quadrant
LUQ
left upper quadrant
RLQ
Right lower quadrant
LLQ
left lower quadrant
Abdominopelvic Regions
Right Hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right inguinal, hypogastric, left inguinal
abduction
movement away
adduction
movement towards
medial
midline
lateral
a side
superior
toward the head
inferior
toward the tail
proximal
nearer to the center
distal
further from the center
anterior
front
posterior
back
parietal
outer wall of body cavity
visceral
viscera, internal organs , especially the abdominal organs
prone
face down
supine
face up
inversion
turning inward
eversion
turning outward
palmar
Palm of the hand
plantar
sole of the foot
superficial
toward the surface (external)
Deep
Away from the surface (internal)
spine divisions
cervical (neck), thoracic (chest) , lumbar (loin) , sacral (lower back), coccyx (tailbone)
cyt/o
cell
hist/o
tissue
kary/o
nucleus
anter/o
anterior , front
caud/o
tail
cephal/o
head
dist/o
far
dors/o
Back (of body)
infer/o
lower back
later/o
side, to one side
medi/o
middle
poster/o
behind, posterior
proxim/o
near, nearest
ventr/o
belly, belly side
abdomin/o
abdomen
cervic/o
neck
crani/o
cranium (skull)
gastr/o
stomach
inguin
groin
jaund/o
yellow
idi/o
unknown
- genesis
forming, producing, origin
homeostasis
stable internal environment
disease
When homeostasis is disrupted
signs
objective indicators that are observable
symptoms
subjective indicator of disease, only experienced by patient
etiology
The study of the cause or origin of a disease or disorder
metabolic
such as diabetes
infectious
such as measles and mumps
congenital
such as cleft lip (born with)
hereditary
such as hemophilia
environmental
such as burns and trauma
neoplastic
such as cancer
diagnosis
establishing the cause or nature of a disease
prognosis
predictions of the course of a disease
idiopathic
disease whose cause is unknown
ascites
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
edema
abnormal accumulation of fluid within tissue space
inflammation
body defense against injury, infection, or allergy marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain & sometime loss of function
peritonitis
inflammation of the peritoneum
sepsis
febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the blood stream
suppuration
producing pus
anastomosis
surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another.
palpation
gentle application of the HANDS
auscultation
LISTENING to the heart, bowel, and lungs with or without a stethoscope
endoscopy
VISUAL examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope
computed tomography
generates a detailed cross sectional image that appears as a slice
fluoroscopy
technique in which the X ray are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays internal structure in continuous motion
magnetic resonance imaging
technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field
ultrasonography
High frequency sound waves are directed at soft tissue and reflects as echoes to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
biopsy
removal of a representative tisse sample from a body site for microscopic examination
AP
anteroposterior
BX
biopsy
CBC
complete blood count
CT
computed tomography (cat scan)
DX
diagnosis
SX
symptoms
TX
treatment
eukaryotic
cells with a nucleus
prokaryotic
cells without a nucleus
cytology
The study of the body at the cellular level
histology
The study of tissues