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15 Cards in this Set

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cellular respiration

Overall an oxidative, exergonic process (delta G = -686 kcal/mole)


Glycolysis (cytoplasm) --> Krebs Cycle (matrix) -- > Electron transport chain (inner membrane/cristae)

Aerobic respiration

In the presence of Oxygen


water is the final product

Glycolysis

decomposition of glucose into pyruvate in cytosol


Net: 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2 pyruvate



ATP produced here via substrate level phospohorylation

Krebs Cycle

x2 for glucose because 2 pyruvate are made from 1 glucose in glycolysis so two rounds of TCA cycle occur


Net: 6 NADH, 2 FADH, 2 ATP and 2 CO2


In animals, this CO2 is exhaled

Electron transport chain

Process of ADP --> ATP from NADH and FADH2 via passing of electrons through various carrier proteins


NADH makes more energy than FADH2, more H+ is pumped across per NADH


Final electron acceptor is oxygen, combines with native H+ to form water

Total ATP

1 glucose is about 36 ATP but 38 ATP in prokaryotes


Difference because prokaryotes have no mitochondria so they dont need to ransfer pyruvate into the mitochondrial matrix. They use cell membrane for respiration

Mitochondria

Outer membrane --> intermembrane space(H+) --> inner membrane (ox phosp.) --> mitochondrial matrix (krebs)

Chemiosmosis

Krebs produces NADH/FADH2, they are oxidized (lose electrons), H+ transported from matrix to intermembrane space, pH and electric charge gradient is created, ATP synthase uses the energy in this gradient to create ATP by letting the protons flow through the channel

ATP

the change from less stable molecule to more stable always releases energy

Anaerobic respiration (cytosol)

Include glycolysis + fermentation


Aerobic respiration regenerates NAD+ via O2, which is required for continuation of glycolysis, without O2, there would be no replenishing. NADH accumulates, cell would die w/ no new ATP so fermentation occurs

Alcohol Fermentation

Occurs in plants, fungi(yeasts), and bacteria


Pyruvate --> acetaldehyde + CO2, then acetaldehyde --> ethanol (and NADH --> NAD+)



Acetaldehypde is the final electron acceptor thus forming ethanol

Facultative anaerobes

can tolerate oxygen presence but dont use it; obligate anaerobes cannot live in presence of oxygen

Insulin and Glucagon

Insulin after large meals stores glucose as glycogen in the liver and muscles


Glucagon is the opposite effect and turns on glycogen degradation

Fats

Store more energy than carbohydrates per C, their carbon are in a more reduced state



Lipases in adipose tissue are hormone sensitive

Proteins

Least desirable source of energy, only when carbs and fat unavailable



Ammonia is toxic to vertebrates: Fish excrete, insects and birds convert to uric acid, Mammals convert to urea for excretion