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171 Cards in this Set

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Period in a newborn when they lose 5-7% of their body weight.
Neonatal period
Babies double their body weight by...
4 months
Babies triple their body weight by ....
1 year
Where are the earliest walkers from?
Uganda
Where are the latest walkers from?
France
At age 2 you are.....
About 1/2 of your adult height
In the beginning the head is about _____ of the size of the total length of the body; At birth the head is about ____ of the length of the body; At age 2 the head is ____; Adult head is about ____ of the size of the total length of the body.
1/2; 1/4; 1/5; 1/8
The sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top beginning with the head with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually working its way down; Sensory and motor development proceed according to this principle.
Cephalocaudal pattern
Sequence in which growth starts at the center of body and moves toward the extremities. Prenatal includes organs, arms, legs, hands, and feet, and coordination has greater control over arms before hands and hands before fingers; In adolescence it reverses and the hands and feet grow rapidly.
Proximodistal pattern
Baby can lift head
1 month
Baby can lift chest
3 months
Baby can lift body on hands and knees
5 months
Baby can crawl
7 months
Baby can stand
9 months
Baby can walk
11 months
How heavy and long is the average baby?
7 1/2 pounds and 20 inches long
How many ounces do babies grown per week during the 1st month of life?
5-6 ounces
A nerve cell that handles information processing at the cellular level.
Neuron
Carry signals toward the cell body.
Dendrites
Carries signals away from the cell body to other cells.
Axon
Layer of fat cells that covers neuron and insulates nerve cells and helps nerve impulses travel faster.
Myelin sheath
The process of covering axons with fat cells and begins prenatally and continues after birth; Occurs rapidly after birth and completes in the 1st 6 months.
Myelination
Is not completed until ages 4 or 5
Auditory Myelination
Include brain swelling and hemorrhaging
Shaken baby syndrome
At birth the brain is _____ of it's adult weight; At 2 it is ____ of its adult weight; At 3 it is ____ of its adult weight; At 6 it is ____ of its adult weight.
25%; 75%, 90%, and 95%
What is one of the most dramatic changes in the brain in the 1st 2 years of life?
The spreading connections of dendrites to each other.
Gaps between neurons where chemical interactions connect axons and dendrites, allowing information to pass from neuron to neuron.
Synapses
Increase in connections between neurons; Building of synapses in the brain for growth.
Synaptogenesis
Chemicals that carry information across the synaptic gap between one neuron and the next.
Neurotransmitters
Process when unused connections are replaced by other pathways or disappears; More synaptic connections are made than will ever be used so the ones that are used become strengthened and survive while the unused ones are replaced by other pathways or disappear; Ex. Use one pathway more frequently and other not used disappear.
Synaptic pruning
Measures the brain's electrical activity
Electrocephalogram (EEG)
Highest level of the brain
Forebrain
Area of the brain where high order thinking is done.
Prefrontal cortex
Area of the brain where 80% of the brain's volume and covers the lower portions of the brain like a cap.
Cerebral cortex
The cerebral cortex is divided into....
2 halves or hemispheres that are divided into 4 main areas
4 main areas of the cerebral cortex that is divided into 2 hemispheres.
Lobes
Lobe used for higher order processing; Thinking; Controls involuntary movement; Is the first area to go with Alzheimer's disease.
Frontal lobes
Lobe used for vision.
Occipital lobes
Love used for hearing
Temporal lobes
Lobe used for processing information about body sensations; Used for spatial relations and sensory and perception
Parietal lobes
What affects the brain the most?
Experience
Scientist that experimented using rats and other animals to see if early experiences change the brain's development.
Mark Rosenzweig
Growth spurt in the brain when voluntary reaching begins.
3 months
Growth spurt in the brain when babies crawl, see more, and explore.
7-8 months
Growth spurt in the brain when babies walk
11-12 months
Growth spurt in the brain when language development takes place.
18-24 months
How long do babies sleep in a day?
16-18 hours a day
Sleep where there is rapid eye movement, and a great amount of the body is typically immobilized; Dreams occur here; Spend more time here when studying or stressing about something; Nightmares happen here;
REM sleep
Sleep when non-rapid eye movement occurs; Sleepwalking, night terrors, and sleep talking occurs here; Body becomes mobilized and sweating occurs.
Non-REM sleep
Memory is better after REM sleep because.....
When you study and go to sleep info better returns
When you are active physically, you spend more time in which type of sleep?
Non-REM sleep
How much time to children and adults spend in REM sleep?
Children--50%; Adults--20-25%
What do children and adults begin their sleep with?
Children--Begin with REM sleep; Adults--Begin with non-REM sleep
At 3 months what does a baby experience during sleep?
40% REM sleep and non-REM begins first
Occurs when a baby stops breathing during sleep; Risk occurs at 2-4 months of age; Can be prevented by babies sleeping on their backs; Highest cause of infant death in the U.S.; Less common in a bedroom with a fan and babies who sleep with a pacifier;
SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)
What are 3 types of crying?
Hunger, pain, and anger
Cultural studies suggest that crying increases in frequency over the 1st 6 weeks and then tapers off.
Cross
Doesn't happen in the 1st 6 months; Occurs later on.
Spoiling.
When babies cry it should be.....
Responded to
Crying that occurs 15-20% of the time is....
Colic
Growth spurt in the brain that causes voluntary reaching.
3 months
Growth spurt in the brain that causes a baby to crawl, see more, and explore.
7-8 months
Growth spurt in the brain that causes a baby to walk.
11-12 months
Growth spurt in the brain that causes language development.
18-24 months
Important for brain and body growth, proper organ functioning, and physical growth.
Nutrition
What are 3 important nutrients for children to get?
Fat, protein, and iron
Needed for myelination in neurons.
Fat
Needed for muscle development.
Protein
Needed for brain development
Iron rich blood
The timing and amount of feeding are determined by the infant.
Demand feeding
Babies need _____ calories per pound per day.
50
Believed that you should schedule feedings every 4-6 hours to increase the child's orderliness.
John Watson (Behaviorist)
What is nature's food and is better for a baby's health?
Breast milk
What should children under the age of 2 not consume?
Skim Milk
When did formula feeding become popular?
1960-1970
What percentage of babies are breastfed in this country?
65-70%
Better for baby's health; Lowers risk of childhood obesity, prevents and reduces diarrhea and gas (Colic), respiratory infections, bacterial and urinary tract infections, childhood cancer, and otitis media (inner ear infections), digests well, and improved neurological and cognitive development and visual aculty, contains antibodies, and properly balances fat, iron, and protein.
Benefits of Breastfeeding
What are benefits of breastfeeding for mothers?
Reduced incidence of breast cancer in mothers and female offspring, helps with involution, and minimized postpartum depression.
When should a mother not breastfeed?
If she has AIDS or other infectious diseases that can be transmitted thru milk, taking a drug that can be transmitted thru milk, or has active TB.
What 2 life threatening diseases can occur when a mother weaned a baby off of breast milk too early or is malnourished?
Marasmus or Kwashiorkor
Condition caused by sever protein-calorie deficiency and results in a wasting away of body tissue; The baby becomes grossly underweight and loses muscle due to lack of nutrients.
Marasmus (Can occur in the first year)
Condition caused by severe protein deficiency that is common in poor, rural areas such as the tropics; Children will appear to be fed the child's abdomen and feet are swollen due to water; Vital organs collect the nutrients that are present and deprive other parts of the body; Hair becomes thin, brittle and colorless; Can effect brain development.
Kwashiorkor (Can occur at 1-3 years of life)
Malnutrition causes .....
Infections, brain problems, lower intelligence, and bad coordination.
How can malnutrition be treated?
By supplying food, nutrients, and zinc to the children
What happens at first when these children get food?
They have a greater tendency to gain weight because the body is in starvation mode.
Failing to gain weight because of organic health problems; Fed adequately but can't process due to heart disease, liver, etc.
Organic failure to thrive
Emotional marasmus: Individual thriving because of lack of parental love and nurture; Child fed adequately, but psychologically and socially affected; Occurs due to not enough parental touch and attention (Parental involvement) and results in delayed responsiveness.
Non Organic Failure to Thrive
Deprivation and poor nutrition in a poor social environment may lead to emotional behavioral deprivation, developmental delay, short stature and a small head size; Can be cured by adequate feeding --Rapid catch-up growth of the head circumference.
Deprivation dwarfism
Built reaction to stimuli
Reflexes
Reflex reaction to cheek/mouth touched.
Rooting
Automatic sucking object in mouth
Sucking
Startle response that causes back arching, rapid closing of arms and legs; Evolution suggests that this motion comes from earlier people.
Moro Reflex
Ex. Startles, arches back, throw head back, etc.
Toes fan and foot arches when sole is stroked.
Babinski reflex
When something touches the palm of your hand.
Grasping
Infants reach motor milestones in different culture based on ....
Activity opportunities
What culture used cradle boards and their babies walk at a normal rate.
Algonquin of Canada
What culture massage their babies' limbs so they walk earlier?
Jamaicans
What culture's mothers foster more communicating and talking?
American mothers
What culture's babies are more independent than American babies and tend to be overachievers?
German babies
Development in large muscle activities such as moving arms and walking;
Gross motor development (Occurs first)
Development involving finely tuned movements such as grasping a toy or using a spoon or anything that requires finger dexterity.
Fine Motor development
The product of the interaction between info and the sensory receptors--The eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin.
Sensation
The interpretation of what is being sensed.
Perception
What do children prefer to look at?
Patterns
___________ have far more capabilities than once thought.
Children
Who studied the visual preference method?
Robert Frantz
Study in which children had 2 visual displays on the ceiling; The baby's eyes were viewed through a peephole, if the infant was fixating on one of the displays, could see the display's reflection in the infant's eyes.
Looking chamber
Frantz's Research method studying whether infants can distinguish one stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they attend to different stimuli.
Visual Preference Method
Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus.
Habituation
Ex. you can hear the noise of traffic where you live and you become immune to the noise.
Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulus.
Dishabituation
Ex. you are in the same room with traffic noise, and then you hear a crash, which you recognize because it is a new stimulus or noise
What is a child's vision at birth? At 6 months? At 1 year?
20-100 (Good at vision an arm distance away); 20-100; Same as an adult
What colors can a child distinguish at birth? At 2 months?
Green and red; That of an adult
What images do babies prefer?
Pattern, faces over patterns, attractive faces, and most interested in the eyes
Who studied depth perception?
Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk
When did they believe babies can experience depth?
At 7 months
Looming objects will not cause babies to .....
Flinch or blink; Older babies will
Study constructed by Gibson and Walk in which a miniature cliff with a drop off was covered by glass; Infants were placed on the edge of a visual cliff and had their mothers coax them to crawl onto the glass
Virtual cliffs; Most babies wouldn't do it because they could perceive depth.
Causes an increase in pupil dilation due to a non-typical thing (Ex. ball looming or ascending)
Visual expectation and transport lowering; Campos
Research showed that a 2-4 month old infant shows difference in heart rate when they are placed directly on the deep side of the visual cliff instead of the shallow side.
Campos
Can be done in the womb; changes in infancy involve perception of a sound's loudness, pitch, and localization; less sensitive at birth (low sounds); Newborns can determine the general location from where the sound is coming; More proficient at 6 months.
Hearing
Baby talk; infants sensitive to this
Motherese
Newborns can differentiate this; Expression in their faces indicates what they like: sweet smelling things like fruits or What they don't like: rotten eggs or fish smell.
Smell
Present before birth; When sweet, sour, and bitter solutions are placed on tongue, infants show different facial expressions;
Taste
At 4 months infants prefer salty tastes
Involves integrating information from two or more sensory modalities such as vision and hearing; Ex. Young infants can coordinate visual-auditory information involving people as early as about 4 months;
Intermodal perception
Conducted a study with puppets and babies to prove that babies have the ability to relate and integrate information from 2 or more sensory modalities such as vision and hearing (Sound and site)
Elizabeth Spelke; Done at about 4 months
Conducted a locomotive study where a video was played with 2 locomotives; If the locomotive was approaching and getting louder, the baby looked at it; If the locomotive sound got fainter, the looked at the locomotive that was moving away.
Jeffrey Pickens; Study done at 3-4 months
Involuntary and consistent joined Perception; One sense simultaneously perceived with another sense; More common in women (3x) and left handed individuals; Rare (May result from cross wiring of the brain); Memorable, durable, genetic, and emotional.
Synesthesia; Ex. If the brain simulated, you can see different things with your eyes closed or if you hear Laura and picture the color purple.
People with synesthesia are ......
Neurologically normal and their 2nd perception better
Reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation; Develops at about age 2.
Social Referencing; Ex. a Child will check with mom before they act to see if mom is angry, happy, fearful, etc.
Actions or mental representations that organize knowledge; Organized pattern of action or thought that individuals' use to incorporate or make use of experiences.
Scheme
Believed behavioral schemes (physical activities) characterize infancy and mental schemes (cognitive activities) develop in childhood; Believes infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences, such as seeing and hearing with physical actions.
Piaget and Cognitive development
Occurs when children incorporate new info into their existing knowledge. (schemes)
Assimilation
Occurs when children adjust their schemes to fit new info and experiences.
Accommodation
A mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next.
Equilibriation
Cognitive conflict
Disequilibrium
The shift occurs as children experience cognitive conflict in trying to understand the world; Eventually they resolve the conflict and reach a balance of thought.
Equilibrium
Time when an individual thinks with the senses and gets sensory experiences and coordinates and adapts.
Sensorimotor Stage of Development (From birth to 2 years); Has 6 substages
Substage in which reflexes are automatic and can happen without stimuli; Ex. Sucking or grasping something.
Simples reflexes (Birth - 1 month)
Substage in which the baby reproduces an action associated with the infant's own body that occurred by chance; Ex. Baby makes a fist and puts it in his mouth and sucks it by accident, then he repeats it because he likes it; Other ex. sucking thumb or blowing bubbles
First habits and Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months)
Substage in which the baby does something primarily due to accident and fascination; The infant repeats and action that produces some effect in the external environment (Physical or social); Action with things NOT SELF (Body); Ex. Accidentally kicking mobile, pressing button on the walker, or makes a sound and the caregiver responds.
Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months)
Substage in which first signs of intentional behavior occur; Combing and recombining previously learned schemes associated with external environment; Ex. Move something to get candy or something it wants or an infant manipulates a stick to reach a toy.
Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8-12 months)
Substage in which the baby tries new possibilities; Experimentation; Ex. touching a cat, drops candy in a toilet and flushes--Does it again with another item because he/she likes the way it looks. Ex. May first tough, then grab, and then chase.
Tertiary Circular Reactions, Novelty, and Curiosity (12-18 months)
Substage in which thought occurs before action; Ex. Getting a cookie out of the cookie jar process, temper tantrum thrown after seeing a friend throw one.
Internalization of Schemes (18-24 months)
A form of communication that is based on a system of symbols.
Language
Receptive vocabulary comes before.........
Expressive vocabulary
Distinguish sounds with sound patterns
Phonemes
Learn meanings of words
Semantics
Learn to put words together
Syntax
Learn to use language in social context.
Pragmatics
The become good speakers, children must understand...
Phonemes, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics
A way for babies to signal distress; Most primitive; months.
Crying; Begins at birth and peaks at about 6 months
Gurgling vowel like sounds made in the back of the throat and usually express pleasure during interaction with the caregiver.
Cooing; Begins at 2 months
Occurs in the middle of the 1st year and includes strings of consonant-vowel combinations such as ba, ba, ba, ba.
Babbling; Occurs at about 4-6 months
Elaborate babble, gestures, can understand some directives
Receptive vocabulary; Occurs at 8-10 months
Use of one word to make a whole sentence; Ex. juice--means I want some juice.
Holophrasic speech; Occurs at about 1 year.
Use key words (2-3 words) to express a sentence; Ex. Throw ball
Telegraphic speech; 18-24 months
Baby talk; High pitch delivered speaking to communicate with babies.
Motherese or parentese
Don't remember earlier years; Most of what you remember begins at about 2 or 3.
Infantile amnesia
Language facilitates ......
Memory
One needs to be exposed to human speech for language to develop.
Language acquisition
Response to stimulus
Behaviorists Perspective
Believed in operant conditioning; Language occurs by reinforcement--If a baby says a word and mom smiles and hugs baby, so baby says more; Parent reinforces things that may not be grammatically correct.
Skinner
Proposed that humans are biologically prewired into the brain to learn language at a certain time and in a certain way; Language will occur with or without social enteractment; Said children were born with a language acquisition device (LAD) with is biological endowment that enable the child to detect certain features and rules of language.
Nativist Perspective; Chomsky
Area in the left frontal lobe of the brain next to the part that directs the muscle movements involved in speech production.
Broca's area
Region in the brain's left hemisphere involved in language comprehension; Individuals with damage to this area often produce fluent but incomprehensible speech.
Wernicke's area
Believed biology and experience (Interaction) contribute to language development and socioeconomic status (SES) can have an effect on language development.
Interactionists perspective
Rephrasing what the child has said; Ex. The child says "dog barking" and the parent responds "when was the dog barking"
Recasting
Restating in a more linguistic sophisticated form; Ex. Child says "Doggie eat" and parent replies "Yes, the doggie is eating"
Expanding
Repeating what the child has said; encouraging him/her to say more
Echoing
Identifying the names of objects; increases child vocabulary; 18 months to 2 years
Labeling
Add a suffix at the end of word to indicate smallness; Ex. kitty, doggie
Diminutives