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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A cancer causing agent
Carcinogen
The weight of gas as compared to an equal volume of dry air
Vapor density
A description of a volume increase that occurs when a liquid changes to a gas
Expansion ratio
The gas phase of a substance
Vapor
The study of the adverse effects of chemical or physical agents on living organisms
Toxicology

The minimum amount of gaseous fuel that must be present in the air mixture for the mixture to be flammable or explosive

Lower


Flammable


Limit


(LFL)

Fluid buildup in the lungs
Pulmonary edema
The pressure exerted by a liquid's vapor until the liquid and vapor reach an equilibrium
Vapor pressure
The boundaries of a fuel/air mixture necessary for a combustible material to burn properly
Flammable range
The ability of a material to cause damage upon skin contact
Corrosivity
Bases have pH values that are....
Bases have pH values that are greater than 7
What is the least penetrating type of radiation?
Alpha particles
What type of chemical causes a substantial proportion of exposed people to develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to that chemical?
Sensitizer
What substance prevents the body from using oxygen when exposed?
Cyanide
What adverse health affects are caused by long term exposure to a substance?
Chronic health hazards
What is a type of choking agent?
Phosgene
How is pH an expression of the concentration?
Hydrogen ions in a given substance
What is the hazardous chemical compounds that are released when a material decomposes under heat?
Toxic products of combustion
What is the temperature at which a liquid changes into a gas?
Boiling point
What type of exposure occurs when harmful substances are brought into the body through respiratory system?
Inhalation exposure

The nucleus of a radioactive isotope includes an unstable configuration of .......

Protons and neutrons

The process by which a person or object transfers contamination to another person or object by direct contact?
Secondary contamination
The expansion ratio is a description of the volume increase that occurs when a material changes from.....
Liquid to gas

The vapor pressure at the standard atmospheric pressure of 20 degrees Celsius can be expressed in pounds per square inch, atmospheres and millimeters of mercury?

68 degrees F = 20 degrees C


14.7 psi


1 ATM


760 mm Hg

What does common acids have a pH value of?
Less than 7
What is the ability of a substance to dissolve in water?
Water solubility
What is the first step in understanding the hazard of any chemical?
Involves the identifying of states of matter
What is the ability of a chemical to undergo a change in its chemical makeup, usually with a release of some form of energy?
Chemical change
Air has a set vapor density value of ...
1.0
The weight of an airborne concentration as compared to an equal volume of dry air is the ....
Vapor density
Steel rusting and wood burning are examples of ...
Chemical changes
What is the process of transferring hazmat from source to people, animals and environment?
Contamination
What constituents in air exceeds 10% of lower flammable limit (LFL)?
Flammable vapor
What is the emission of energy by means of electromagnetic disturbances and has wave length and particle like behaviors?
Radiation
What filter catches 0.3 micron size, much smaller than dust or alpha radiation particles?
HEPA filter
What temperature is the minimum temperature at which a substance will ignite without an external ignition source?
Ignition temperature
What is the minimum temperature at which liquid or solid emits vapor sufficient to form an ignitable mixture with air?
Flash point
What chemicals are capable of causing seizures?
Convulsant
What type of change is subjected to outside influences such as heat, cold and pressure?
Physical change
What particles break chemical bonds, creating ions; therefore they are considered ionizing radiation?
Beta
What is the flash point of gasoline?
-43 degrees F
What is the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level?
14.7 pounds per inch
How will most flammable liquids react with water?
Float
What is the specific gravity or water index value?
Water = 1
What is the specific gravity of water when it floats?
Less than 1 = floats
Greater than 1 = sinks

What are the signs and symptoms of nerve agent exposure?

Salivation


Lachrymation (tearing)


Urination


Defecation


Gastric disturbance


Emesis (vomitting)


Miosis (concentration of the pupil)


(SLUDGEM)

What are some types of Blister agents?
Sulfur mustard



Lewisite

What is the most frequently consulted hazardous materials references used by emergency response agencies?

Emergency


Response


Guide Book


(ERG)

List four ways that chemicals enter the body


Inhalation (through lung)


Absorption (permeating the skin)


Ingestion (gastrointestinal tract)


Injection (through cuts or breaches in skin)

How do fire fighters remember the number of lighter than air gases?

Hydrogen


Acetlylene


Helium


Ammonia


Methane


Illuminating gas (neon and hydrogen cyanide)


Carbon monoxide


Ethylene


Nitrogen


(HA HA MICEN)

What is the "working definition" for a hazardous material?
Potential energy that could be harmful when released from its container

What are the three physical states that chemicals exist?

Solid


Liquid


Gas

What does BLEVE stand for?

Boiling


Liquid


Expanding


Vapor


Explosion

What is referred as a catastrophic failure in a pressured cylinder of a liquid?

Boiling


Liquid


Expanding


Vapor


Explosion


(BLEVE)

How is chemical change different from physical change?

Physical change is change in state



Chemical change results in an alteration of the chemical nature of the element

What is the expansion ratio and boiling point of water?

Expansion ratio of 1,700:1


Boiling point 212 F

Why are flammable liquids with low boiling points dangerous?

Large volumes of flammable vapor when exposed to relatively low temperatures

What are the three important aspects to consider when looking at the fire potential of a chemical?

Flash point


Ignition temperature


Flammable range

What is the temperature at which sustained combustion occur?
Fire point
What term is associated with oil and common cause of stove fires?
Ignition (auto-ignition) temperature

What defines the amount of flammable vapor needed to keep a fire burning?

Upper


Flammable


Limit


(UFL)

What defines the amount of vapor need to cause ignition?

Lower


Flammable


Limit


(LFL)

Generally speaking, describe how the flammable range results in more dangerous the material?
Wider the flammable range, the more dangerous the material
What compares the "weight" of a given vapor with the "weight" of air?
Vapor density

Does a chemical that has a low vapor density rise or sink in air?

Low vapor density (lower than 1) rise


High vapor density (greater than 1) sinks

Liquid inside the container will vaporize until the molecules given off by the liquid reach equilibrium with the liquid itself
Vapor pressure
How is vapor pressure and speed at which a material evaporates once it is released from its container correlated?
Vapor pressure directly correlates to the speed at which material evaporates

At what temperature is vapor pressure standard?

68 degrees F = 20 degrees C


14.7 psi


1 atm


760 torr


760 mm Hg

How is Corrosivity categorized?

Acids


Bases

What is the pH values of "Strong" corrosives?

pH values of 2.5 and lower


pH values of 12.5 and higher

What is the natural and spontaneous process by which unstable atoms (isotopes) of an element decay to different state and emit or radiate excess energy in the form of particles or waves?
Radioactivity
Which particles cannot travel very far from the nucleus of the atom?
Alpha particles
Which particles can travel several feet in the open air?
Beta particles
What is the most energetic type of radiation that fire fighters might encounter?
Gamma radiation
Which type of radiation are pure electromagnetic energy?
Gamma radiation
Which type of radiation can pass through thick solid objects very easily and generally follow the emission of a beta particle?
Gamma radiation
What is the difference between "hazard" and "exposure"?
Hazard = material capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety or environment



Exposure = process by which people, animals, environment and equipment are subjected to or come into contact with a hazardous material

What are the seven categories of WMD?

Thermal


Radio logic


Asphyxiation


Chemical


Etiologic


Mechanical


Psychogenic


(TRACEMP)

What WMD can enter the body through the lungs or the skin and then systemically affect the function of the human body?
Nerve agents
What WMD disrupts the central nervous system and possibly causing death or serous impairment?
Nerve agents such as many common pesticides

What are two types of Nerve Agents?

Sarin


VX

What are types of Choking Agents?

Chlorine


Phosgene


Chloropicrin

What WMD can be disperesed to briefly incapacitate a person or groups of people?

Irritant


(mace, riot control agents)

Chemicals that pose a hazard to health after only relatively short exposure periods
Acute health effects

How is the ERG divided?

Yellow = numerical


Blue = alphabetical


Orange = Guides


Green = Evacuation isolation distances


White = References, resources, call numbers

What is an expression of the temperature at which a liquid fuel gives off sufficient vapor that when an ignition source is present, results in flash fire?
Flash point