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47 Cards in this Set

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11. Characteristics between the branch points of a cladogram that are shared by all organisms above the branch point and are not present in any below it are called
A. homologous characters.
B. homoplastic characters.
C. ancestral characters.
D. derived characters.
E. novel characters.

D. derived characters.

12. Characteristics that have arisen in organisms as a result of common evolutionary descent are said to be ______________ characteristics.
A. homologous
B. homoplastic
C. adaptive
D. derived
E. ancestral

E. ancestral

13. One day after a biology class four of your friends argue about the difference between phylogeny and systematics. Which friend is right?
A. Friend A states that systematics and phylogenies are really the same, one is more recent than the other, but basically they are the same.
B. Friend B says that systematics is the same as cladistics and cladistics is reconstructing clades, which ultimately lead to the development of phylogenies.
C. Friend C argues that systematics is the actual collecting and cataloguing of specimens into museums that can be used later by scientists to construct clades and phylogenies.
D. Friend D says that the way she remembers is that systematics is the reconstruction and study of phylogenies.

D. Friend D says that the way she remembers is that systematics is the reconstruction and study of phylogenies.

14. The evolutionary sequence in the development of a complex character can be best analyzed through
A. homoplasies.
B. phylogenetics.
C. taxonomy.
D. classification.
E. synapomorphies.

E. synapomorphies.

16. Choose the true statement about the morphological data in the chart shown below. The "1" in the box means the trait is present and the "0" indicates that the trait is absent.

A. All organisms in this chart share all of the derived characteristics.
B. Only the gorilla and humans share all of the derived characteristics.
C. The lamprey is the only outgroup since it shares none of the derived characteristics.
D. The salamander and the tiger are outgroups because they only share two of the derived characteristics (jaws and lungs).
E. The shark is an outgroup since it only has one of the derived characteristics (jaws).

C. The lamprey is the only outgroup since it shares none of the derived characteristics.

17. The study and reconstruction of phylogenies is

A. evolution.
B. systematics.
C. taxonomy.
D. taxidermy.
E. cladistics.

B. systematics.

18. Based on the phylogeny shown, we can conclude that species 2 is most closely related to species
A. 1.
B. 3.
C. 4.
D. 5.
E. 1 or 3 (can't tell).

B. 3.

19. Based on the phylogeny shown, the outgroup would be species
A. 1.
B. 2.
C. 3.
D. 4.
E. 5.

A. 1.

20. Based on the phylogeny shown, the group of species including (2-5) can best be described as a(n)
A. clade.
B. paraphyletic group.
C. polyphyletic group.
D. cladogram.
E. evolutionary tree.

A. clade.

21. Derived character states shared by clade members are called
A. ancestral traits.
B. homoplasies.
C. synapomorphies.
D. plesiomorphies.
E. symplesiomorphies.

C. synapomorphies.

22. The following steps are used to construct a cladogram that best reflects the evolutionary relationships of a group of species. If you arranged these steps from first to last, which step would be last?
A. Polarize the characters.
B. Establish the character states.
C. Gather data on characters to be used.
D. Apply the principle of parsimony.
E. Select an outgroup.

D. Apply the principle of parsimony.

23. Character states shared by the ancestor or outgroup of a clade are called
A. derived traits.
B. homoplasies.
C. synapomorphies.
D. plesiomorphies.
E. symplesiomorphies.

E. symplesiomorphies.

25. Birds, snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles are all thought to share a common ancestor and several homologous traits. Assuming that this is true, these groups of animals would best represent
A. a polyphyletic group.
B. a monophyletic group.
C. homoplastic convergence.
D. several clades.
E. a species cluster.

B. a monophyletic group.

27. Assume that evidence suggests that the crocodiles are more closely related to the birds than the turtles and snakes. If so, then including the crocodiles but not the birds in the Class Reptilia, would make the Class Reptilia
A. a monophyletic group.
B. a paraphyletic group.
C. a polyphyletic group.
D. parsimonious.
E. not homologous.

B. a paraphyletic group.

28. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Based on this cladogram, which trait is least informative of phylogenetic relationships within the group?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
E. E

A. A

29. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Based on this cladogram, which species would be considered the outgroup?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5

D. 4

30. Consider the cladogram shown. Which pair of species shares the greatest number of derived characters (synapomorphies)?
A. 4 and 2
B. 5 and 3
C. 6 and 1
D. 6 and 2
E. 5 and 2

C. 6 and 1

31. Consider the cladogram shown. Based on this cladogram, which species has the greatest number of ancestral character states?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5

D. 4

32. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. For the species shown, which trait is represented by the greatest number of plesiomorphies?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
E. E

A. A

33. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Based on this cladogram, which pair of species diverged most recently?
A. 1 and 4
B. 2 and 3
C. 2 and 4
D. 6 and 4
E. 6 and 5

B. 2 and 3

34. Consider the cladogram shown. Which pair of species shares the greatest number of derived characters (synapomorphies)?
A. 1 and 4
B. 2 and 3
C. 2 and 4
D. 6 and 4
E. 6 and 5

B. 2 and 3

35. Consider the cladogram shown. If we designate species 1 as the outgroup, which species has the greatest number of ancestral character states?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5
E. 6

E. 6

36. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Which trait is least informative of phylogenetic relationships within the group?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
E. E

E. E

37. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Which species would you designate as the outgroup?
A. 1
B. 4
C. 2
D. 3
E. 5

E. 5

38. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Which pair of species shares the greatest number of derived characters (synapomorphies)?

A. 1 and 4
B. 6 and 3
C. 6 and 1
D. 5 and 6
E. 5 and 1

A. 1 and 4

39. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Based on this cladogram, which species has the greatest number of ancestral character states?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5

E. 5

40. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Which trait is least informative of phylogenetic relationships within the group?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
E. E

D. D

41. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Based on this cladogram, which species would you designate as the outgroup?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 5
E. 6

E. 6

42. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Which pair of species shares the greatest number of derived characters (synapomorphies)?
A. 1 and 4
B. 3 and 4
C. 4 and 5
D. 2 and 4
E. 2 and 5

C. 4 and 5

43. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Based on this cladogram, which species has the greatest number of ancestral character states?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 6

E. 6

44. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Which trait is least informative of phylogenetic relationships within the group?
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
E. E

C. C

45. The table shows the distribution of traits (A-E) in six extant species (1-6). A "0" indicates the ancestral condition; a "1" is the derived condition. Construct a cladogram from these data. Which pair of species shares the fewest number of derived characters (synapomorphies)?
A. 1 and 6
B. 1 and 4
C. 4 and 6
D. 2 and 3
E. 6 and 3

A. 1 and 6

46. Consider the cladogram shown. Which pair of species shares the greatest number of derived characters (synapomorphies)?
A. 1 and 3
B. 6 and 4
C. 6 and 5
D. 2 and 3
E. 6 and 3

C. 6 and 5

47. Consider the cladogram shown. Based on this cladogram, which species has the greatest number of ancestral character states?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5

A. 1

48. A group is considered monophyletic if
A. all members of the group share a common ancestor that is included in the group.
B. not all descendants of the common ancestor are included.
C. all members share homoplastic traits.
D. the group does not contain the most recent common ancestor.
E. it is the most parsimonious grouping.

A. all members of the group share a common ancestor that is included in the group.

49. A group is considered paraphyletic if
A. all members of the group share a common ancestor.
B. not all descendants of the common ancestor are included.
C. the common ancestor of the group is not included in the group.
D. the group does not contain the most recent common ancestor.
E. it is the most parsimonious grouping.

B. not all descendants of the common ancestor are included.

50. A group is considered polyphyletic if
A. all members of the group share a common ancestor.
B. not all descendants of the common ancestor are included.
C. all members share homoplastic traits.
D. the group does not contain the most recent common ancestor.
E. it is the most parsimonious grouping.

D. the group does not contain the most recent common ancestor.

52. The phylogenetic species concept (PSC) declares that a group is a species if it
A. is reproductively isolated from other species.
B. has evolved one or more of its own derived characters.
C. looks different than other species.
D. is allopatric.
E. has no synapomorphies.

B. has evolved one or more of its own derived characters.

53. Parental care in dinosaurs, crocodiles, and birds is an example of
A. homoplasy caused by convergence.
B. homoplasy caused by common descent.
C. homoplasy caused by evolutionary reversal.
D. homology caused by convergence.
E. homology caused by common descent.

E. homology caused by common descent.

54. The evolution of saber teeth in a number of groups of extinct carnivorous mammals is an example of
A. homoplasy caused by convergence.
B. homoplasy caused by common descent.
C. homoplasy caused by evolutionary reversal.
D. homology caused by convergence.
E. homology caused by common descent.

A. homoplasy caused by convergence.

55. The evolution of conducting tubes (sieve tubes) in land plants and brown algae is an example of
A. homoplasy caused by convergence.
B. homoplasy caused by common descent.
C. homoplasy caused by evolutionary reversal.
D. homology caused by convergence.
E. homology caused by common descent.

A. homoplasy caused by convergence.

62. Based on the phylogeny shown, which species is not a tree but has seeds?
A. ginkgo
B. fern
C. rose
D. oak

C. rose

63. Based on the phylogeny shown, which characteristic is homoplastic?
A. tree
B. needles
C. flowers
D. seeds

A. tree

64. Assume that the ancestor of this phylogeny had vascular tissue and chlorophyll. If this is true, which answer lists all key traits of a ginkgo?
A. vascular tissue, needles, tree, and chlorophyll
B. tree and seeds
C. seeds, tree, vascular tissue, and chlorophyll
D. needles, tree, and seeds

C. seeds, tree, vascular tissue, and chlorophyll

66. Based on the phylogeny shown, choose the true statement about evolutionary relationships.
A. Ginkgo is more closely related to oak than rose.
B. Oak is equally related to rose and pine.
C. Fern is more closely related to pine than to rose.
D. Fern is equally related to ginkgo and oak.

D. Fern is equally related to ginkgo and oak.

69. A frog should be added to the phylogeny above at point
A. A.
B. B.
C. C.
D. D.
E. E.

A. A.

70. The common ancestor shared by mouse and gorilla is at point ______ on the phylogeny shown.
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
E. E

E. E