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52 Cards in this Set

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Matter

All of the substances of the universe that have mass & occupy space

Atoms are composed of:

Protons


Neutrons


Electrons

Protons

Positively charged particles, always found in the nucleus


Neutrons

Neutral particles, always found in the nucleus

Electrons

Negatively charged particles that have almost no mass & are in constant motion


Atomic Number

the number of protons in a given atom

Elements

Atoms with the same atomic number


-pure substances that can't be broken down by ordinary chemical means

Atomic Mass

The sum of protons & neutrons


Neutral Atoms

Same number of protons and electrons


Ions

The number of electrons is not equal to the number of protons


-when atoms gain or lose electrons, they become negatively or positively charged

Cations

Have more protons than electrons and are positively charged

Anions

Have more electrons than protons and are negatively charged

Isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons

Oxidation

An atom of molecule loses an electron

Reduction

An atom or molecule gains an electron

Redox Reaction

When the process of oxidation and reduction are coupled


-electrons carry energy from one mlc. to another

Periodic Table

Elements according to atomic number and properties


-Invented by Dmitri Mendeleev

Valence Electrons

electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom


-i.e.- Hydrogen has 1 valence electron



Octet Rule

Rule of eight


-atoms tend to establish completley fill outermost energy levels

CHON

Four elements found in large quantities:`


Carbon


Hydrogen


Oxygen


Nitrogen

Molecules

atoms held together in a stable association

Compounds

molecules containing more than one type of element

Chemical Bonds

A bond between atoms resulting from attraction from oppositely charged atoms


- the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms

Covalent Bonds

When two atoms share one or more paris of valence electrons


Build stable molecules


- i.e.- H2,O2, & N2

Ionic Bonds

formed by the attraction of oppositely charged ions

Ionic Compounds

Held together by Ionic bonds

Ionization

Ionic compounds tend to separate in water

Electronegativity

Atom's affinity for electrons

Polar Covalent Bond

molecule that has an uneven charge

Uneven

Hydrogen Bonds

Weak attractions between the partial negative regions & partial positive regions of water molecules.

Weak

Cohesive

The attraction of water molecules for each other

Attraction

Hydrophobic Exclusion

Nonpolar molecules tend to aggregate or organize in ways that minimize their contact with water.

Minimize

Adhesive

The ability of water to be attracted to itself & to other polar molecules or charged substances

Attracted

Hydrogen Bonding

Determines the high specific heat of water

High

Soluble

Ability of a substance to dissolve in solution

Dissolve

Solvent

The solute is dissolved

Solute

Substance that is dissolved

Hydrophilic

"Water Loving"

Hydrophobic

"water-fearing"

Hydrophobic Exclusion

Water forces the hydrophobic portions of molecules together.

Forces

The pH Scale

Measure hydrogen ion concentration


-pH= -log[H+]

Measure

Acidic Solution

pH less than 7


-H+ ion concentration is higher than OH- ion concentration

Alkaline Basic Solution

pH greater than 7;


-ion concentration is lower than OH- ion concentration

Acid

A chemical substance that releases H+ ions in water & increases the concentration of H+ ions


- Lower pH

Base

A chemical that accepts H+ ions & lowers the concentration of H+ ions


-Raises pH

Buffer

Acts as a reservoir for H+ ions by opposing resisting any changes in pH

Opposing

Surface Tension

The cohesion of water

Specific Heat

The amount of heat required to change one gram of substance one degree Celsius

Heat of Vaporization

The amount of heat required to change one gram of liquid to gass

Evaporation Cooling

The evaporation of water from a surface releases lots of heat energy, which cools the surface

Hydration Shell

This sphere of water molecules

Mole

Weight in grams of the sum of atomic masses