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12 Cards in this Set

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Name and describe the three parts of a neuron and how they work to transmit impulses
CELL BODY which contains the nucleus where protein synthesis occurs. AXON is an extension that carries impulses away from the neuron cell body; some AXON are covered with myelin shealth (fatty covering). DENDRITE short, often highly branched extensions of the cell body; they receive impulses from the axon.
Give an example of a sensory neuron, motor neuron, and interneuron impulse
SENSORY neuron (afferent) receive and transmit messages to the central nervous system from all parts of the body. MOTOR (efferent / EXIT) neurons receive and transmit messages from the central nervous system to all parts of the body INTERNEURONS (connectory/association neurons) can be thought of as a link between the other two types of neurons; located ONLY in central nervous system.
List the primary functions of each of the four cerebral lobes
FRONTAL lobes are larger in humans than any other animal. Frontal lobes control the area for written and motor speech; assist in obtaining higher levels of mental functioning and body movements. PARIETAL LOBE is the sensory area. This area interprets sensations such as touch, temp and pain received from the skin; also the ability to recognize shapes is done in the parietal lobe. TEMPORAL LOBE controls sensation of hearing, auditory interpretation and smell. OCCIPITAL LOBE for visual transmission and interpretation.
Explain how an injury to the cerebellum might manifest itself in an individual
The cerebellum is the second-largest part of the brain. Its functions are concerned with movement. Injury to the cerebellum may cause dizziness and loss of equilibrium and eventually loss of balance and inability to walk
Identify the role of the limbic system in maintaining a person's level of awareness
The limbic system's role in a person's awareness deals with the part called Reticular formation and part of RF is RAS "reticular activation system" which governs wakefulness and sleep. This system is affected by environmental stimuli via the eyes and ears, which activates the RAS to maintain alert.
State the functions of the medulla, the pons, and the midbrain. Describe two nursing considerations appropraite for a client with a brain stem dysfunction.
MEDULLA contains centers for many vital body functions: cardiac center, vasomotor center (regulates the diameter of blood vessels), respiratory center (breathing) functions for involuntary reflexes such as swallowing, coughing and sneezing. PONS means "bridge" which reflects the fact that the pons contain nerve tracts that carry messages between the cerebrum and medulla. PONS help to produce a normal breathing pattern. MIDBRAIN is at the very top of brain stem and is a reflex center for visual and auditory reflexes.
NURSING CONSIDERATION: Put client on a PEG to help with eating as the swallowing may be affected (is this nursing consideration or doctor's order). ???
Explain two functions of the spinal cord.
to conduct impulses to and from the brain and to act as a reflex center.
Identify the three meninges.
Dura mater-outet layer, tough fibruous covering that adheres to bones. ARACHNOID, middle layer PIA MATER, inner layer that lies closely over the brain.
Describe the functions of the cerebrospinal fluid
forms a protective cushion around and within the CNS "central nervous system" allowing the brain to float. It removes celluar waste
List the 12 cranial nerves and the function of each. List three functions of spinal nerves
Olfactory functions for smell; OPTIC vision; OCULOMOTOR for eye movement; TROCHLEAR for voluntary eye movement; TRIGEMINAL for sensation of head and face, nose; ABDUCENT for eye movement "motor"; FACIAL for taste and facial expressions; ACOUSTIC for hearing and balance; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL for control of swallowing; VAGUS for somatic motor function, speech; SPINAL ACCESSORY for rotation of head, raising of shoulder; HYPOGLOSSAL for movement of tongue
Compare and contrast the functions of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
Sympathetic Division of the ANS (autonomic nervous system) produces a response for emergency "flight or fight". PARASYMPATHETIC is the division of ANS (automonic nervous system) . This part produces responses that are normal, while at rest and not under extreme stress.
Explain what is meant by the action potential of a nerve cell
Neuron receives electrical and chemical impulses, which makes it possible for a neuron to transfer a stimulus from one area of the body to another and elicit a response. At rest the cell membrane of a neuron contains an electrical charge and Ions are concentrated outside the membrane. A nerve impulse causes a organized rapid exchange of sodium and postassium ions across the cell membrane "firing" and spread like an electric current along the membrane; this is the action potential and last milliseconds.