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43 Cards in this Set

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-is any stimuli about which the body is aware.
sensation
Sensation is necessary to monitor ______ and ______ world to maintain homeostasis.
internal and external
Sensation can occur while a person is ______ or _______.
conscious or unconscious
-is the conscious awareness and interpretation of sensation.
Perception
Perceptions involve precise _______ and _______ of a sensation.
localization and indentification
Memories of perceptions are stored in the _____________.
Cerebral cortex
-is a type of sensation.
Modalities
-type of sensory modalitiy is ____________ and general visceral senses--- sensations from the skin and body that you perceive. (touch)
General somatic senses
-type of sensory modalitiy is _________ senses--- smell, taste, hearing, vision, and balance.
Special senses
A _______ is a change in the enviroment that can activate certain sensory receptors.
stimulus
How are sensory receptors classified?
by location
______-receptors are found near the surface of the body. They receive external stimuli and are responsible for hearing, vision, smell, taste, touch, pressure, pain, vibration, and temp.
Exteroceptor
______-receptors monitor internal enviroment (blood vessels or viscera) The information from these receptors is not consciously interpreted except for pain or pressure.
Interoceptors
______-receptors sense the body position and movement and are located in the muscles, tendones, joints, and internal ear.
Proprioceptors
How are sensory receptors classified?
by stimuli detected
__________ are receptors that detect pressure or stretch, touch, vibration, hearing, propriception, equilbrium, and blood pressure.
mechanoreceptors
__________ are receptors that detect temperature.
Thermoreceptors
__________ are receptors that detect damage to tissues and pain.
Nociceptors
__________ are receptors that detect light.
Photoreceptor
__________ are receptors that detect molecules and are responsible for taste, smell, and changes in body fluid chemistry.
Chemoreceptors
Sensory __________ occurs when the generator potential or receptor potential decreases in amplitude during a maintained, constant stimulus. In other word, when you are exposed to something for a long time you get used to it. Olfactory fatigue occurs when you are exposed to a smell for a while and it disappears. You really just got used to it.
Sensory Adaption
There are _____ order of somatic sensory pathways
three
somatic sensory pathways _____ order neuron- conducts impulses to the brainstem or spinal cord.
1st order neuron
somatic sensory pathways _____order neuron-conducts impulses from the spinal cord or brainstem to the thalamus. The impulse crosses over to the opposite side before reaching the thalamus.
2nd order neuron
somatic sensory pathways _______ order neuron- conducts impulses from the thalamus to the primary somatosensory cortex(postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe)
3rd order neuron
-are sensations of touch, pressure, vibration, itch, and tickle
Tactile
Sensations are detected by various _____.
receptors
Tactile receptors in the skin or subcutaneous layer include;
meissner corpuscle
hair root plexuses
merkel disc
ruffini corpuscle
Tactile recptors _____ _____ are found in hairless skin.(fingers and palms) and responsible for discriminative touch.
Meissner corpuscles
Tactile recptors _____ ____ are found in hairy skin and are responsible for detecting anything that moves hair.
Hair root plexuses
Tactile recptors _____ _____ detect internal stretching. (movements of limbs)
Ruffini corpuscle
Tactile recptors ____ ____ detect vibrations.
lamellated corpuscle
_____ pain occurs within one second. Impulses are carried on myelinated fibers. (Needle puncture or knife cut)
Fast pain
____ pain begins a second or more agter the stimulus is applied. Impulses are carried on unmyelinated fibers. (toothache)
Slow pain
______ pain may be felt in an area far away from the stimulated organ. (Hurting in left arm with a heart attack)
Referred pain
__________ sensation occurs when a patienthas had a limb amputated and they still experience itching, pressure, tingling or pain as if the limb were still there. This could be due to the impulses being sent from the proximal portions of the neurons that are still there or areas of the brain that recieved impulses from the limb are still active.
Phantom Limb
Spinal cord injury- damaged by tumor, heriated disc, clot, or trauma. A complete ________ of the cord occurs when the cord is severed resulting in loss of both sensation and movement below the injury.
transection
_________ is paralysis of one limb.
Monoplegia
________ is paralysis of both upper or both lower limbs.
Deplegia
________ is paralysis of all four limbs.
Quadriplegia
______ is paralysis of one side.
Hemiplegia
Spinal _____ is loss of reflex function and results in slow heart rate, low blood pressure, and bladder problems, but reflexes may gradually return.
shock
_______ ______ loss of motor control and coordination. It is caused by damage to motor areas of the brain due to infection of pregnant women with rubella virus, ratiation of the fetus or temporary lack of oxygen during birth. It is not a progressive disease, but it is irreversible.
Cerebral palsy